Important battle of the Revolutionary War. The American victory encouraged France to aid colonial independence from Britain.
the final battle of the revolution . won by George Washington and his French allies who trapped Gen. Cornwallis in Virginia.
Articles of Confederation
First US government which was ineffectual in dealing with the nation's financial and political problems because it lacked coercive power.
debt- ridden farmers mounted a protest to foreclosures led by revolutionary war veterans; that demonstrated the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
Also known as the Connecticut compromise, the __ __ established a bicameral legislature with proportional representation in the lower house (House Rep) and equal representation in the upper house [2 senators each state].
The Federalist Papers
Jay, Madison, and Hamilton published a series of letters under the pseudonym "Publius" to help grow support for the ratification of the Constitution.
Bill of Rights
Fearing a large abusive central government, Anti Federalists demanded the constitution be amended to insure civil liberties. Written by James Madison.
Alexander Hamilton's_______ was established to improve the national economy, but it also created a constitutional crisis on interpretation of the U.S. constitution.
Sec of Treasury under Washington and perhaps the greatest administrative genius in U.S. history. He was the father of the 1st National Bank, pro industry, nationalist and founder of the Federalist Party.
1795 Treaty with Spain fearful of Jay Treaty with GB might threaten Spanish holdings in the West. Spain permitted U.S. navigation rights on the Mississippi and conceded U.S. right to lands east of the Mississippi.
French ambassador sent covertly to gain American support for Revolutionary France in its war against Britain. His actions angered Washington who had him expelled.
Diplomatic incident involving the US and France in 1797-98. French officials of the Directory dubbed by _ _ _ demanded tribute money in exchange for not raiding American shipping.
the unpopular treaty with GB 1794-95 that was supposed to stop British impressments but did not. Brits did withdraw soldiers from the Northwest Territory.
Western Pennsylvania Farmers failed uprising against the Washington administration. They took up arms as a result of Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey in 1794
John Adams' appointment of Federalist party members to federal courts before Thomas Jefferson took office in 1800.
Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions
issued by Jefferson and Madison in response to President Adam's passage of the Alien & Sedition Acts, the _____& _____ _____ advocated states rights to nullify laws they considered to be un-constitutional.
Lewis and Clark
In 1804 the Corps of Discovery surveyed and made scientific observations of the newly acquired Louisiana Territory from France.
Embargo Act 1807
Jefferson's least popular action taken. It did not allow American shipping to carry European goods to the U.S. It furthered American industry and wrecked the shipping business in the Federalist New England area.
after the election of 1800, Jeffersonians promoted this as the ideal for women to raise their children with the idealism of the American nation.
Economic philosophy or practice in which England established the colonies to provide raw materials to the Mother country; the colonies receive manufactured goods in return.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
First constitution in the colonies drafted that stated a government's authority rests upon the consent of the governed and expressed the will of the majority.
trade laws administered by GB in the 1600's to enforce mercantilism on the Amer. Colonies.
Virginia House of Burgesses
First of the many mini legislatures created by the Colonies that started the tradition of Salutary Neglect and home rule.
prevalent Puritan religious belief centered in the New England Colonies that believed only the "elect" were predestined for salvation
Puritan dissenter that was banished by Governor Winthrop for teaching antinomianism.
Used by Puritan Churches to bolster attendance but also keep political leadership under the control respectable families. Conversion needed but not "regeneration" to be a member of the congregation.
Disgruntled Virginia (Chesapeake) colonial farmers attempted to overthrow Gov. Berkeley in 1676 because of economic hardship and perceived failure with Indian raids and lack of women that could be married.
The league of Indian tribes in the Northeast that fought with the English in the French-Indian War and supported the Loyalist in the American Revolution.
18th Century (1700's) concept which held that God created the world according to rational laws and that he was like a clockmaker who would not interfere in the natural order of things.
Enlightenment philosoph whose ideas influenced T. Jefferson's Declaration of Independence and Madison's work on the Bill of Rights; specifically his ideas on Life, Liberty and Property.
during the French and Indian war, Ben Franklin attempted to unify the colonies behind G.B. in its war against France.
Proclamation of 1763
A line drawn by the British gov't that forbade colonist from settling the western lands won after the French and Indian War.
prior to the American Revolution, the British instituted the __ __ which taxed all transactions involving paper without colonial consent. No other act outraged all 13 colonies than this one.
1770, street clash between townspeople and Irish soldiers ordered to guard British custom houses.
Committees of Correspondence
organized by Massachusetts in 1772 __ __ __ purpose was to keep a close watch on the British and report any violations on individual rights.
Major religious revival (1740-1750) prior to the American Revolution that furthered individualism, opposed established authority and furthered American nationalism.
named after the British political leader who wrongly believed that this external "tax" or "duty" would be accepted by the colonies.
Boston Tea Party
organized by the sons of liberty, the __ __ __ eventually forced the British to pass the Coercive Acts in 1775.
The association, Sons of Liberty and Minutemen
Organized by the American in response to the Boston Blockade and crisis.
Olive Branch Petition
American colonists sent this to King George III in hopes of reconciliation. It was rejected when he branded all colonists as rebels. The King sent Hessian and British troops to America.
1st Continental Congress
this body drafted their Declaration of Rights and Grievances. Brought back the Aassociation and oversaw the relief of Boston and boycott of English goods.
2nd Continental Congress
this body formed the Continental Army, sent the Olive Branch to Britain during the blockade of Boston, and eventually drafted the Declaration of Independence.
Meeting of New England Federalist who were opposed to the War of 1812 and wanted to seek a separate peace with Britain even if it meant seceding from the Union.
Henry Clay and John C Calhoun were called __ __ for their support of the war of 1812 (Now a common term used for pro-war sentiment)
Old National Road-(Cumberland Road)
first of the internal improvements provided by congress in 1806 to help the colonization of the west. A toll bill linked to the road was vetoed by Monroe.
Second Great Awakening
Religious revivals between 1800-1840 that lead to rise of major reform movements and utopian/religious sects like the Shakers, Mormons, Millerites et al.
American System 1819
This was HENRY CLAY'S three part plan to improve the national economy through a 2nd National Bank, Internal Improvements, and Protective Tariffs.
HENRY CLAY was wrongly credited with this bill in 1820 to solve the divisive issue of the expansion of slavery which threatened to upset the political balance in the Senate. This bill set the tone for the congressional actions prior to the Civil War.
Senator from Kentucky called the Great Compromiser because he was credited the Missouri Compromise and other major political compromises between 1820 - 1850.
Era of Good Feelings
Brief period of nationalism and patriotism that followed the American victory over the British in the War of 1812. It was marked by a spirit of cooperation on economic matters, internal improvements and westward expansion
Alexis De Tocqueville
French liberal politician who observed the evolution of American political thought, customs and social interaction in the 1830's. His book Democracy in America is still considered one the most accurate primary sources on American culture.
Marbury v. Madison
(Marshall's) Landmark supreme court case that established the principle of judicial review.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Established the principle of implied powers and upheld the constitutionality of the bank. "the power to tax is the power to destroy".
the alleged deal between John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay in the Election of 1824 that stole the election from Andrew Jackson.
the idealized description political supporters of Jackson used to promote his candidacy for president.
Harrison's victory over Tecumseh (Shawnee) in Indiana in 1811 became the slogan of his presidential bid in 1840.
Announcement made during the Era of Good Feelings because the U.S. feared that the Concert of Europe might intervene in Latin American revolutions-U.S. stood opposed to any further colonization in western hemisphere and would not intervene in European affairs.
Most important Chief Justice of the Supreme Court who kept the Federalist ideals alive long after the party faded into history.
Logrolling (Pork Barrel Politics)
Mutual assistance in the passage of legislation so that one member of Congress votes for a colleague's bill in return for his/her support on their bill.
Peggy Eaton (Malaria/Affair)
scandal that divided VP John C Calhoun and Pres. Jackson. Jackson did not like the way this woman was maligned by members of his own cabinet and their wives.
during the age of reform 1825-1859 he was an outspoken reformer who focused on education
Doctrine of Separate Spheres
19th century belief that men were superior in worldly pursuits and women were superior in their moral influences
1836-1870 these were used by schools to expose children to a common curriculum that preached honesty, industry (hard work), and patriotism.
Cotton Whigs and Conscience Whigs
Southern Whigs who supported slavery and Northern Whigs who opposed slavery.
socio religious group of "perfectionists". Began in 1848 its members shared property, complex marriage, and raising of the children in communal form to reach a utopian society.
Free Soil Party 1847/48
political movement that opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories.
Slave who led a bloody revolt in 1831 and who believed he was divinely inspired to kill his master and other slave owners. 60 men women and children were killed by his band. Southern states wrote more restrictive slave laws limiting the movement of slaves.
the historical term used to identify slavery prior to the Civil War.
An almost religious belief prior to the Mexican American War that the U.S. should possess the N. American continent from east to west.
Fugitive Slave Law
the most controversial portion of the compromise of 1850. It allowed southern slave holders to retrieve escaped slaves in the north.
Wilmot Proviso (1846)
This bill was presented during the Mexican-American War. It stipulated that none of the territory acquired should be opened to slavery.
Know Nothing Party
Secretive Nativist political party that opposed Immigration during the 1840's and early 1850's. Officially called the American Party.
Andrew Jackson (Old Hickory) opposition to National Bank (Henry Clay) prompted him to remove Federal deposits and place them in State Banks or ___ ____.
1st national meeting for women's suffrage held in 1848. Elizabeth Cady Stanton issued the "Declaration of Sentiments" calling for the equality of the sexes.
the political party formed as the anti-Jackson party by Henry Clay and supporters of the American System, and southern "states rights" advocates.
Creator of the American steamboat who started the era of commercial steam navigation.
1832-33 was over the tariff policy of the Fed. Gov't, during Jackson's presidency which prompted South Carolina to threaten the use of NULLIFICATION, possible secession and Andrew Jackson's determination to end with military force.
Henry David Thoreau
A transcendentalist who wrote the essay "Civil Disobedience" which outlined his protest to the Mexican American war. This essay later influenced non-violent protests by Gandhi and M.L. King Jr.
A network of safe houses used by abolitionist to aid the escape of Southern Slaves into the North.
an argument used by slavery supporters claiming slavery had benefits for the slaves as well as the United States.
Term used to describe the regions (Northeast, South & West) and differing economic, social and cultural systems and interests prior the Civil War.
escaped slave who became a leading figure in the anti slavery movement.
anti slavery activists who demanded the immediate end of slavery.
a war fought on the principle of "manifest destiny" and supported by southern planters desiring to expand the cotton culture. Was opposed by the Northeast who thought war was "unrighteous and gave the south more political power.
"54 40 or Fight"
slogan used by pro-war westerners wanting a war with GB for all of the Oregon territory in the 1840's.
Induced by American textile industries, he left England with the memorized knowledge on how to build a textile factory.
Panics of 1819, 1837, 1857, 1873, 1883, 1893
Economic Depression brought about by over speculation in land or rail roads on a cycle of 20 to 10 years.
American Temperance Society
First national organization to protest the abuse of alcohol. They demanded the "total" abstinence and pressured churches to expel members who condoned alcohol.
Unitarian Sunday School teacher who during the age of reform worked for better treatment for the mentally insane.
Anti-Slavery (Abolitionist) newspaper founded by New Englander William Lloyd Garrison/Liberator were outspoken and controversial because of their unwavering stand on slavery.
Term used to describe the dominance of the South's cash crop (Cotton) on politics, agriculture, and society prior to the Civil War in the Ante-Bellum South.
Compromise of 1850
controversial bill which allowed CA to enter the union as a free state while agreeing to some southern demands on slavery issues.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in response to the Fugitive Slave Law __ __ __ is considered to have been one of the most effective Anti-Slavery statements made prior to the Civil War.
advocated by Lewis Cass and accepted by Democrats as a way to avoid tensions and political fall outs over the expansion of slavery.
Stephen Douglas' attempt to allow popular sovereignty to decide the slavery issue in the territories in exchange for the Trans-Continental Rail Road linking California and Illinois.
Conflict over the expansion of slavery into the Kansas Territory during its transition to statehood. Free-Staters battled slavery supporters with violence.
a bloody altercation between a southern congressman and a northern senator in the senate chamber in 1856.
Fanatic anti-slavery leader who attempted to start a massive slave uprising by seizing the federal armory at Harpers Ferry in 1859.
Dred Scott Case
1857 Supreme Court case that developed the fact that slaves were property not persons entitled to constitutional rights. It was the second Supreme Court decision to declare a law unconstitutional—Missouri Compromise
Lincoln - Douglas Debates
Seven debates for the Illinois senate in 1858. This was the last peaceful debate over slavery prior to the Civil War.
Bloodiest single day of fighting during the Civil War resulted in a draw and prompted Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation
Fall of Atlanta
Major turning point of the Civil War when Sherman's Union Army victory insured the re-election of Abe Lincoln
Northern democrats who opposed the civil war and were also referred to as peace democrats.
the union (Northern) plan devised by General Winfield Scott to blockade the south and restrict its trade to win the war.
Wade Davis Bill
radical reconstruction plan with the far reaching punitive measures against the southern states and their eventual readmission into the union.
passed by southern "Johnson" governments to force Freedmen back on the plantations.
Stephen A Douglas (the little giant)
senator and presidential candidate from ILL. who authored the Kansas- Nebraska Act to benefit his political career.
The period following the Civil War in which the devastated Southern States were slowly restored economically, politically and socially.
A southern supporter of northern "Carpet Bag" governments during Reconstruction in the South.
vice president who succeeded Lincoln after the assassination and was the first president to be impeached.
Waving the bloody shirt
an expression used as a vote getting stratagem by the Republicans during the election of 1876 to offset charges of corruption by blaming the Civil War on the Democrats
Compromise of 1877
the ___ ___ ___ resolved the disputed election of 1876 between Sam Tilden and Rutherford B Hayes.
southern political movement that sought and did return "home rule" to the southern states during reconstruction
a 19th century term for political corruption during the Gilded Age. Which included bribery scandals, abuses of the spoils system and political cronyism.
Gospel of Wealth
Belief that those blessed with great wealth earned it through Darwinist competition but also were obligated to improve society and mankind through philanthropy.
A supporter of the Republican Party during the Gilded Age who supported the Spoils System, Protective Tariffs, and Hard Money; he opposed reform.
Jim Crow Laws
Laws enforcing segregation or control of Blacks in such a manner as to make them unequal after reconstruction.
"Detective" agency or private police hired by the Federal Gov't to guard the President prior to 1865 and used by business owners to intimidate Unions with strong arm tactics.
Knights of Labor
early American labor union that failed to achieve economic and social acceptance because its members were unskilled, expendable and "un-American". The union was prone to violence, linked to communism, and anarchism.
During the Gilded Age it was the notorious Tammany Hall political machine led by "Boss" William Marcy Tweed. In two years it defrauded the City of $200,000,000 1868-71.
Bill that attempted to pacify the plains Indians by giving them land to farm. Many Indians sold their land for alcohol.
term applied to the U.S. presidents between Grant and Roosevelt. (Hayes, Cleveland, Garfield, Arthur, Harrison, McKinnley) Because business men dominated the National scene.
this act sought to end the abuses of the spoils system and was passed by Grover Cleveland. It mandated civil service exams for employment in the government.
paper money issued during the civil war to help finance the war effort and stabilize the economy
Vertical and Horizontal Integration
two forms of monopolistic system used by the "captains of industry" in the U.S from the 1870's to 1900 to control production and sale. (Vertical = mine to market) (Horizontal = specialized in one particular aspect of business such as refining of raw materials)
Political cartoonist who's work exposed the abuses of the Tweed ring, criticized the South's attempts to impede Reconstruction, and lampooned labor unions. Created the animal symbols of the Democratic and republican parties.
The term used to describe the Gilded Age monopolist for their Social Darwinist practices who referred to themselves as "Captains of Industry."
The Patrons of Husbandry or farmers organized against rail road abuses. Similar group to the Farmers Alliance.
19th century of belief that evolutionary ideas theorized by Charles Darwin could be applied to society.