a logical process in which conclusions are drawn from a set of premises containing no more info than the premises taken collectively. E.g. All dogs are animals. This is a dog; therefore this is an animal., reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)
reasoning from detailed facts to general principles
medical practice and advice based on observation and experience in ignorance of scientific findings
Bacon coined this term, meaning "The New Organon" or system of investigation
having the sun as the center
Of or relating to Descartes and his work; espcially on logical analysis and mechanistic interpretation of physical nature. A follower of such philosophy.
a Dutch journalist who called for an international code based on natural law. Believed that one body of rules could reduce the dealing of governments to a system of reason and order
something very large; giant sea creature in the Bible
Wealth of Nations
This is the 18th century book written by Scottish economist Adam Smith in which he spells out the first modern account of free market economies.
The Spirit of Laws
Montesquieu, about separation of powers.
the idea that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will
Wrote The Progress of the Human Mind. He identified humans will go through 10 stages of progress. They were about to enter the tenth where humans will be perfect in understanding.
policy based on the idea that government should play as a role
tax on property and land, provided permanent income for French royal government
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
This was the ruler of the Habsburgs that controlled the Catholic Church closely, granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom
Belgian king who ruthlessly exploited the natives on his African land for personal gain.
a supporter of traditional political and social institutions against the forces of reform
a member of the Whig Party in the United States in pre-Civil-War times