Biology [CHAPTER 34] (The Origin and Evolution of Vertebrates)

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If an animal has segments, bilateral symmetry, pharyngeal clefts, a post-anal tail, and deuterostomic development, it must be a member of the _____.

A) Platyhelminthes
B) Annelida
C) Chordata
D) Arthropoda
E) Mollusca

Chordata

A _____ is a chordate but not a vertebrate.

A) shark
B) lamprey
C) sea star
D) frog
E) lancelet

lancelet

Which of the following chordate characteristics contributes most to the formation of your ears?

A) muscular, post-anal tail
B) pharyngeal slits or clefts
C) dorsal, hollow nerve cord
D) notochord
E) None of the listed responses is correct.

pharyngeal slits or clefts

Which of the following chordate characteristics contributes most to suspension-feeding devices in many invertebrate chordates?

A) notochord
B) muscular, post-anal tail
C) pharyngeal slits or clefts
D) dorsal, hollow nerve cord
E) None of the listed responses is correct.

pharyngeal slits or clefts

Which of the following pairs is NOT a correct match?

A) Aves, canary
B) Osteichthyes, perch
C) Chondrichthyes, great white shark
D) Gnathostomata, hagfish
E) Mammalia, kangaroo

Gnathostomata, hagfish

Unlike craniates such as sharks, frogs, alligators, and rats, hagfish are unique in that they do not have _____.

A) pharyngeal slits
B) vertebrae
C) a dorsal, hollow nerve tube
D) a notochord
E) a muscular, post-anal tail

vertebrae

Which of the following can be found in craniates but not in lancelets and tunicates?

A) neural crest
B) two clusters of Hox genes
C) duplications of genes that produce signaling molecules and transcription factors
D) All of the listed responses are correct.
E) None of the listed responses is correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

A lamprey, a shark, a lizard, and a rabbit share all the following characteristics except _____.

A) a dorsal, hollow nerve cord
B) pharyngeal clefts in the embryo
C) hinged jaws
D) vertebrae
E) All of the listed responses are correct.

hinged jaws

Which of the following groups represents the most basal lineage of vertebrates?

A) sharks
B) conodonts
C) hagfish
D) lampreys
E) None of the listed responses is correct.

lampreys

Some sharks are viviparous, which means that _____.

A) they have a tendency toward single births
B) they maintain a constant body temperature
C) the young develop within the female's body
D) they have a tendency toward multiple births
E) they lay eggs

the young develop within the female's body

The gill flap, or operculum, was an important adaptation for fish because it helps with _____.

A) underwater reproduction
B) sensing vibrations in the water
C) maintaining a supply of oxygen
D) sensing chemicals in water
E) adjusting buoyancy

maintaining a supply of oxygen

A feature of bony fish not found in sharks is _____.

A) a lateral line system
B) gills
C) pelvic and pectoral fins with bony supports
D) a swim bladder
E) mineralized teeth

a swim bladder

Which of the following sets of animals contains only gnathostomes?

A) hagfish, bass, sharks, and frogs
B) sharks, hagfish, and whales
C) rays, turtles, pigeons, and tuna
D) lampreys, conodonts, and hagfish
E) conodonts, placoderms, and acanthodians

rays, turtles, pigeons, and tuna

The first vertebrates to live on land were _____.

A) mammals
B) conodonts
C) reptiles
D) chondrichthyans
E) amphibians

amphibians

Which of the following animals is an amphibian?

A) lizard
B) turtle
C) caecilian
D) All of the listed responses are correct.
E) None of the listed responses is correct.

caecilian

Habitat loss, the spread of a fungal disease, climate change, and pollution are causing severe population declines and extinction in _____.

A) turtles
B) rodents
C) sharks
D) amphibians
E) birds

amphibians

The adaptation that freed vertebrates from water for reproduction and allowed them to radiate into diverse terrestrial environments was the _____.

A) lateral line system
B) bony appendage
C) amniotic egg
D) operculum
E) placenta

amniotic egg

Which of the following characteristics is NOT shared by extant birds and extant reptiles?

A) vertebrae
B) scales containing keratin
C) pharyngeal clefts in the embryo
D) endothermic metabolism
E) amniotic eggs

endothermic metabolism

Which of the following is an archosaur group?

A) tuatara
B) lizards
C) snakes
D) crocodiles
E) None of the listed responses is correct.

crocodiles

All mammals _____.

A) complete their embryonic development in the uterus
B) bear live young
C) nourish their offspring through mammary glands
D) All of the listed responses are correct.
E) None of the listed responses is correct.

nourish their offspring through mammary glands

The opossum is an example of a(n) _____ mammal.

A) oviparous
B) placental
C) eutherian
D) marsupial
E) monotreme

marsupial

Primates are distinguished from other mammals by _____.

A) opposable thumbs, nails, and good depth perception
B) long tails used for balance, stereoscopic vision, and opposable thumbs
C) eutherian reproduction, opposable thumbs, and good depth perception
D) stereoscopic vision, mammary glands, and single births
E) fur, claws, and small litters

opposable thumbs, nails, and good depth perception

Humans and the loris share many traits that probably evolved in our early primate ancestors, including _____.

A) culture
B) a thumb that is relatively mobile and separate from the fingers
C) an arboreal way of life
D) bipedalism (upright walking)
E) opposable big toes

a thumb that is relatively mobile and separate from the fingers

Humans, apes, and monkeys are classified together as _____.

A) anthropoids
B) hominids
C) hominoids
D) Australopithecinae
E) brachiators

anthropoids

All species of New World monkeys are _____.

A) nocturnal
B) solitary
C) arboreal
D) oviparous
E) ground dwelling

arboreal

Included among the modern genera of apes are _____.

A) tarsiers and gorillas
B) Old World monkeys and New World monkeys
C) chimpanzees and monkeys
D) gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos
E) lemurs and lorises

gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos

Which of the following traits distinguishes hominids from apes?

A) an enlarged brain (relative to body size)
B) the use of fire
C) the absence of a tail
D) bipedalism (upright walking)
E) the use of tools

bipedalism (upright walking)

Which of the following correctly lists probable ancestors of modern humans from the oldest to the most recent?

A) Homo, Australopithecus, Sahelanthropus
B) Homo, Sahelanthropus, Australopithecus
C) Australopithecus, Sahelanthropus, Homo
D) Sahelanthropus, Homo, Australopithecus
E) Sahelanthropus, Australopithecus, Homo

Sahelanthropus, Australopithecus, Homo

_____ arose very early in hominid evolution; _____ evolved more recently.

A) Large brains ... upright posture
B) Large brains ... prominent brow ridges
C) Upright posture ... large brains
D) Upright posture ... forward-looking eyes
E) None of the listed responses is correct.

Upright posture ... large brains

What was the earliest hominid to have an enlarged brain (relative to body size)?

A) Australopithecus
B) Homo neanderthalensis
C) Homo erectus
D) Homo habilis
E) Ardipithecus

Homo habilis

Analysis of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomes of modern humans has led most researchers to agree that _____.

A) modern humans emerged from Africa
B) the common ancestor of Homo sapiens was a Neanderthal
C) Homo sapiens settled in the New World approximately 75,000 years ago
D) Homo sapiens evolved from H. erectus in several parts of the world
E) Homo sapiens has many common ancestors

modern humans emerged from Africa

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