business informations systems test 2

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chapters 6/9/10.1/11

Information granularity

refers to the extent of detail within the information.

transactional information

encompasses all of the information contained within a single business process or unit of work, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of daily operational tasks.

analytical information

encompasses all organizational information, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of managerial analysis tasks.

real time information

this means immediate, up to date information.

real time systems

provide real-time information in response to query requests.

hierachical database model

here information is organised into a tree like model that allows repeating of information.

network database model

a flexible way of representing objects and their relationships.

rational database model

database that store information in the form of logically related two dimensional tables.

entity

the relational database model is a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored.

attributes

these are characteristics of an entity class.

primary key

is a field that uniquely identifies a given entity in a trade.

foreign key

the relational database model is a primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between the two tables.

physical view

of information deals with the physical storage of information on a storage device such as a hard disk.

logical view

focuses on now users logically access information to meet their particular business needs.

scalability

this refers to how well a system can adapt to increaseed demands.

performance

measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction.

redundancy

is the duplication of information or storage the same information in multiple places.

information integrity

is a measure of quality of information.

integrity constraints

are rules that help ensure the quality of informationa.

relational integrity constraints

are rules that enforce basic and fundamental information-based constraints.

business-critical integrity constraints

enforce business rules vital to an organizations success and often require more insight and knowledge than relational integrity constraints.

database management systems

is softward through which users and application programs interact with a database

data-driven website

is an interactive website kept constantly unpdated and relevant to the needs of its customers through the use of the data base.

integration

allows separate systems to communicate directly with each other.

forward integration

takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all downstream systems and processes.

backward integration

takes informational entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all upstream systems and processes.

data warehouse

is a logical collection of information, gathered from many different operational databases that supports businessanalysis activities and decision making tasks.

extraction transformation

a process that extracts information from intelectual and external databases, transforms the information using a common set of enterprize definitions and loads the information into the data warehouse.

cube

this is a common term for representation of mutlidimensional information

information cleansing or scrubbing

this is a process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent, incorrect, or incompleat information.

data mining

this is the process of analysing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone.

customer reltionship management (CRM)

this involves managing all aspects of a customers relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty and retention and organizations profitability.

reporting technologies

help organizations identify their customers across other applications.

analysis technologies

help organizations identify their customers into categories such as best and worst customers.

predicting technologies

help organizations make predictions regarding customer behavior such as

operational CRM

supports traditional processing for day to day office operations or systems that deal directly with the customers.

analytical CRM

supports back office operations and stategic analysis and includes all systems that do not directly deal the customers.

List generators

compile customer information froma variety of sources and segment information for different marketing campaign.

campaign management systems

guide uses through marketing campaigns performing such tasks as campaingn defintition planning, scheduling, segmentation and success analysis.

cross selling

is selling additional products to a customer

up selling

is increasing the value of the sale

sales force automation

this is a system that automatically tracks all of the steps in the sales process.

sales management CRM systems

automate each phase of the sales process helping individual sales representatives coordinate their accounts.

contact management CRM systems

maintains customer contact information and identifys prospective customers for future sales.

opportunity management CRM systems

target sales opportunities by finding new customers or companies for future sales.

a contact center

where customer service representatives answer customer inquiries.

web based self service

allows customers to use the web to find answers to their questions or solutions to their problems.

call scripting systems

access organizational databases that track similar issues.

personalization

occurs when a website can know enough about a persons likes that they offer more entising products.

SRM

focuses by keeping suppliers satisfied by evaluating and categorizing supppliers for different products.

PRM

focuses on keeping vendors satisfied by managing alliance partner and reseller relationships that provide customers with the optimal sales channel.

ERM

provides employees with a subset of CRM applications avliavle through a web browser.

business information systems

refers to applilcations and technologies that are used to gather, provide access to, and analyze data and information to support decision making efforts.

data mining

process of analysing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone.

data mining tools

use a variety of techniques to find patterns and relationships in large volumes of information.

cluster analysis

is a technque used to devide an information set into mutally exclusive groups such that the members of each group are as close together as possible.

association detection

reveals the degree to which variables are related and the nature and frequency of these relationships in the information.

market basket analysis

aqnalyzes such items as websites and checkout scanner information to detect customers buying behavior.

statistical analysis

performs such functions as info correlations distributions calculations and various analysis.

forecasts

made on the basis of time series information.

time series information

is time stamped info collected at a particular frequency.

single point of access to information for users

with a BI solution, organizations can unlock information heldwithin theri databases by giving authorized users a singlepoint of access to data.

bi access across organization departments

the greatest benefit is that it can be used at every stop in the calue chain.

quantifiable benefits

these include benefits working time saved in producing reports, selling information to suppliers and so on.

indireclty quantifiable benefits

this can be evaluated though indirect evidence such as improved customer service.

unpredictable benefits

are the result of discoveries made by creative users.

intangible benefits

include improved communication thoughout the enterprise, improved job satisfaction of empowered users, and improved knowledge sharing.

operations management

predicting machinery failures; finding key factors that control optimization of manufacturing capacity.

brokerage and securities trading

predicting when bond prices will change; forecasting the range of stock fluctuations for particular issues and the overall market.

marketing

classifying customer demographics that can be used to predict which customers will respond to a mailing or buy a particular product.

enteprise resource planning (ERP)

integrates all departments and functions throughout an organization into a single IT system (better decisions can be made).

Core ERP compenents

are the traditional compenents included in most ERP systems and they primarily focus on internal operations.

Extended components ERP

are the extra components that meet the organizational needs covered by the core components and primarily focus on external operations.

Accounting and finance components ERP

manage accounting data and financial processes within the enterprise with functions such as general ledger, accounts payble, accounts receivable

productiong and materials management components ERP

handle the various aspects of production planning such as productiong scheduling.

human resources components ERP

track employee information including payroll, benefits, compensation, and performance assessment.

extended components ERP

the extra components that meet the organizational needs not covered by the core compenents.

supply chain management (SCM)

involves the management of information flows between and amoung stages to maximise effectiveness and profitability.

ebusiness

means conducting business on internet, not only buying and selling but also serving customers.

elogistics

this manages the transportation and storage of goods.

eprocurement

this is the business to business (B2B) purchase and sale or supplies and services over the internet.

middleware

this is several different types of softward that sit in the middle of and provide connectivity between two or more software apllicationss.

Enterprise application integration (EAI) middleware

this represents a new approach to middleware by packaging together commonly used functionality, such as providing prebuilt links to popular enterprise applications.

balanced scorecard

this is a management systtem, in addition to a measurement system, that enables organization to clarify their vision and strategy and translate them into action.

overall fit

refers to the degree of gaps that exist between the system and the business process.

proper business analysis

the best way to determine which fit stategy is right to conduct a thorough business analysis.

solid implementation plans

a plans is needed to monitor the quality objectives and timelines.

systems development life cycle (SDLC)

this is the overall process for developing information systems from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenence

planning phase

involves establishing a high level plan of the intended project.

analysis phase

involves analyzing end-user business requirements and refinning project goals into definned functions and operations of the intended system.

business requirements

are the detailed set of business requests that the system must meet in order to be successful.

design phase

involves describing the desired features and the operations of the system including screen layouts.

development phase

involves taking all of the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforming them into the actual system

testing phase

involves bringing the project pieces together into a special testing enviroment to test for errors and bugs.

implementation phase

involves placing the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations witth the system

maintenance phase

involves performing changes, corrections to ensure the system continues to meet the business goals.

methodology

this is a set of policies, procudures and standards.

waterfall methodology

this is an activity-based process in which each phase in the SDLC is performed sequentially from planning through implementation and maintenance

iterative development

this consists of a series of tiny projects

agile mathodology

aims for the customer satisfaction through early continous delivery of useful software components developed by an iterative process.

rapid application development (RAD) methodology

emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems developemnt process.

protype

smaller-scale representation or working model of the users' requirements or a proposed design for an information system.

extreme programming (XP) methodology

like other agile methods, breaks a project into tiny phrases, and developers cannot continue on to the next phase untill the first pahse is complete.

project stakeholders

individuals involved in the project whose interests might be affected as a result of project execution.

smart

specific/measurable/agreed upon/realistic/time framed

project charter

the document issued by the project initiator, formally authorizing the existance of a project.

project plan

(by a business person) a formal (understandable) approved document that manages and controls project execution. it needs to be team based and therigth size for your business.

kill switch

a trigger that enables a project manager to close the project prior to compeltion.

program evaluation and review technique (PERT)

this is a graphical network model that depicts project's tasks and the relationships between those tasks.

dependency

the logical relationship between a project task and a milestone.

critical path

a path from start to finish, compleating the project in the shortest amount of time.

Gantt chart

this is a simple bar chart that depicts project tasks against a calander.

project manager

an individual who is an expert in project planning

change management

a set of techniques that aid in evolution, composition, and policy management.

change control board (ccb)

that is responsible for approving or rejecting all change requests.

insourcing

in house development

outsourcing

this is where a company offers services for another company and does not perform those services in house.

onshore outsourcing

engaging another company within the same country for services

nearshore outsourcing

contracting an outsourcing arrangement with a company from a nearby country.

offshore outsourcing

using organizations from developing countries to write code and develop systems.

financial savings

typically cheaper to hire workers in china and india

rapid growth

by taking advantage of outsourcing, an organization is able to acquire best-practice process expertise

the internet

the pervasive nature of the internet as an effective sales channel has allowed clients to become more comfortable with outsourcing

globalization

as markets open worldwide, competition heats up.

contract legth problem

difficulty of getting out of a contract, problems in foreseeing resources needed, problems reforming intenal IT contact.

competitive edge

effective and innovative use of IT can give an organization a _________ over it's rivals.

confidentiality

some companies decide against outsourcing due to secret information getting into the hands of the provider.

scope definition

most organizations suffer from problems associate with the ________ system.

Which of the following represents the different information formats?

Detail, summary, aggregate

What in the relational database model is a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored?

Entity

All of the following are advantages of database-stored information, except:

Increased information redundancy

What measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction?

Performance

What are the rules that help ensure the quality of information?

Integrity constraints

how does CRM allow a business to perform better

Help sales staff close deals faster, Make call centers more efficient and Provide better customer service.

What helps an organization identify its customers across applications?

Reporting

Which of the following operational CRM technologies does the marketing department typically use?

List generator, campaign management, cross-selling and up-selling

What targets sales opportunities by finding new customers or companies for future sales?

Opportunity management systems

What allows customers to use the web to find answers to their questions or solutions to their problems?

Web-based self-service

What focuses on keeping suppliers satisfied by evaluating and categorizing suppliers for different projects, which optimizes supplier selection?

Supplier relationship management

Which of the following is one of the CRM business drivers?

Automation/productivity/efficiency, Increase revenues and Inventory control

What activities do production and materials management components perform?

Handle the various aspects of production planning and execution such as demand forecasting, production scheduling, job cost accounting, and quality control.

Which extended ERP component collects information used throughout an organization, organizes it, and applies analytical tools to assist managers with decisions?

Business intelligence

What are several different types of software, which sit in the middle of and provide connectivity between two or more software applications?

Middleware

What represents a new approach to middleware by packaging together commonly used functionality, such as providing prebuilt links to popular enterprise applications, which reduces the time necessary to develop solutions that integrate applications from multiple vendors?

Enterprise application integration middleware

What is an IT-based set of tools that supports the work of teams by facilitating the sharing and flow of information?

Collaboration system

What provides tools to manage the creation, storage, editing, and publication of information in a collaborative environment?

Content management system

outsourcing beenfits

cost

outsourcing challanges

contract length, competitive edge, confidentiality and scope definition.

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