DAT Biology 1

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The magnification of the eyepiece X magnification of the objective.

Total magnification

What two organisms convert ammonia to Uric Acid before secreting it?

1. Insects 2. birds

What type of organisms convert ammonia to urea before excreting it?

Mammals

A histone DNA complex is called a XXXXXXXX?

Nucleosome

Where does rRNA synthesis occur?

Nucleus

What is the term used to define membrane-bound sacs involved in the transport and storage of materials that are ingested, secreted, processed, or digested by the cell?

Cytoplasm

What is the term used to define a protein that lowers the activation energy of a reaction, increases the rate of a reaction, does not affect the overall change of dG in the reaction, and are not changed or consumed in the course of the reaction?

Enzymes

What is the usual optimal temperature for an enzyme?

40 degrees Celsius

What is the optimal pH for an enzyme in the body?

pH 7.2

What is the term used to define when high energy hydrogen atoms are removed from organic molecules?

Dehydrogenation

How many molecules of ATP does Cellular respiration yield?

36-38

Were does glycolysis occur in a cell?

Cytoplasm

What is the term used to define the knob on microscopes that roughly focuses the image?

Coarse Adjustment

The cell wall is only present in these two types of eukaryotes?

Fungi and Plants

When glucose supplies run low the body utilizes other energy sources, what are these three sources in the correct order?

1. Other carbohydrates 2. Fats 3. Other proteins

How many molecules of ATP does fermentation yield?

2

Sister chromatids are XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX of each other.

Identical copies

At what stage of mitosis do chromosomes condense and spindles form?

Prophase

At what stage of mitosis does a new nuclear membrane form?

Telophase

At what stage of mitosis does the two cells divide and pinch off from one another?

Cytokinesis

What organisms lack centrioles?

Plants

Does meiosis preserve the diploid number of cells?

No, it halves them, ex: from 2n to 1n

During Prophase I homologous chromosomes come together & intertwine, what is this process called?

Synapsis

Sometimes during Prophase I chromatids of homologous chromosomes break at corresponding points and exchange equivalent pieces of DNA what is this process called?

Crossing over

Were does meiosis only occur in organisms?

Sex cells (Primordial germ cells)

Can crossing over occur in mitosis?

No, only in meiosis I

What do the ovaries produce?

Oocytes (eggs)

Were does spermatogenesis or sperm production occur?

Seminiferous tubules

Where and what organisms use external fertilization?

In the water: fish and amphibians

What organisms participate in internal fertilization?

Vertebrates

Species that care for their young produce fewer what?

Eggs

To remember the pathway of sperm think seven up, and what does this acronym stand for?

Seminiferous tubules, Epididymis, Vas Deferens, Ejaculatory duct, Nothing, Urethra, Penis

What is the term used to describe a multilayered sac of cells that contains, nourishes, and protects an immature ovum?

Follicle

What type of cells produce estrogen?

Follicle cells

The secretion of both estrogens and progesterone is regulated by what two things?

LH and FSH

What steroid hormone is secreted by the corpus luteum?

Progesterone

What are the four different types of asexual reproduction?

1. Budding 2. Parthenogenesis 3. Fission 4. Regeneration

How do prokaryotes reproduce?

Asexually

Term used to describe a cell dividing into two equally sized cells with equal amounts of cytoplasm, each containing a duplicate of the parent chromosome? Or the asexual reproduction of prokaryotes?

Binary Fission

What is the term used to describe replication of the nucleus followed by unequal cytokinesis?

Budding

What type of asexual reproduction do organisms such as ameoba, paramecia, algae, and bacteria do?

Fission

What type of asexual reproduction do hydra and yeasts do?

Budding

What is the term used to describe the development of an unfertilized egg into an adult organism?

Parthenogenesis

What is the term used to define chromosomes that exist in homologous pairs that are not allosomes (sex chromosomes)?

Autosomes

The resulting Zygote of a non-disjunction event will either result in a XXXXXXXX having three copies of a chromosome, or a XXXXXXXXX having a single copy of that chromosome.

Trisomy or Monosomy

What is the term used to define a chemical compound that inhibits spindle formation thereby causing polyploidy, it is termed a mutagenic agent?

Colchicine

In DNA what contributes the most to the stability of DNA?

The Guanine and Cytosine content becuase Guanine and Cytosine makes 3 hydrogen bonds with each other while Adenine and Thymine make only two hydrogen bonds with each other.

Most amino acids have more than one XXXXXX specifying them.

Codon

Each codon represents only one XXXXXX XXXXXXX?

Amino Acid

New DNA is synthesized in the XXXXXXX to XXXXXXXX direction?

5' to 3'

RNA is synthesized in the XXXXXXXX to XXXXXXXX direction?

5' to 3'

A protein is synthesized from RNA in the XXXXXXX to XXXXXX direction?

5' to 3'

Where are ribosomes synthesized?

Nucleolus

What is the term used to define the process whereby information coded in the base sequence of DNA is transcribed into a strand of mRNA which leaves the nucleus through nuclear pores?

Transcription

Where does transcription occur?

Nucleus

Where does translation occur?

Cytoplasm

What is the term used to define were mRNA codons are sequenced into amino acids?

Translation

What is the term used to define the complimentary sequence of the mRNA codon located on the tRNA?

Anticodon

Ribosomes are composed of two subunits, what are these subunits?

Protein and rRNA

Drug resistance in microrganisms is regulated by cytoplasmic DNA known as what?

Plasmids

What is the term used to define plasmids that are capable of integration into bactrial genomes?

Episomes

What are three mechanisms for increasing genetic variance in in a population of bacteria?

1. Transformation 2. Conjugation 3. Transduction

What is the term used to define the process by which a foreign chromosome fragment (plasmid) is incorporated into the bacterial chromosome via recombination, creating new inheritable genetic combinations?

Transformation

What is the term used to define sexual mating between bacteria in which an F+ bacteria exchanges DNA with an F- bacteria?

Conjugation

What is the term used to define the process by which DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another via a virus?

Transduction

What is the term used to define noncoding sequences of DNA that serves as a binding site for the RNA polymerase?

Promoter

What is the term used to define an area of DNA on a gene that codes for the synthesis of repressor molecules that binds to the operator and blocks the RNA polymerase from transcribing structural genes?

Regulator

What is the term used to define a system that requires the presence of a substance for transcription to occur?

Inducible systems that require an inducer

What is the term used to define systems that are in a constant state of transcription unless a substance is present to inhibit transcription?

Repressible systems, that require a corepressor

What is the term used to define when operons containing mutations such as deletions or whose regulator genes code for defective repressors are incapable of being turned off, and whose enzymes are always being synthesized are called what?

Constitutive

What is the term used to define a virus that infects its hosts bacterium?

Bacteriophage

What is the term used to define a technique for the detection of specific DNA sequences in a specific DNA sample?

Southern Blot

What is the term used to define joining DNA fragments by catalyzing the formation of phosphodiester bonds between DNA nucleotides?

DNA Ligase

Where does fertilization occur in vertebrates?

Oviduct

What happens if more than one egg is fertilized in vertebrates?

Fraternal twins may be conceived.

What is the term used to describe early embryonic development characterized by a series of rapid mitotic divisions?

Cleavage

What is the term used to describea process that results in cells that maintain the ability to develop into a complete organism?

Indeterminate cleavage

What type of cleavage may result in identical twins?

Indeterminate cleavage

What is the term used to describe cells whose future differentiation pathways are determined at an early developmental stage?

Determinate cleavage

What is the term used to describe the specialization of cells that occurs during development?

Differentiation

What is the term used to describe a solid ball of embryonic cells?

Morula

WHat begins when the morula develops a fluid-filled cavity, and what is it called?

Blastuation/Blastocoel

What is the term used to describe a hollow sphere of cells that occur after the fourth day of fertilization?

Blastula

Once implanted in the uterus, cell migrations transform the single cell layer of the blastula into a three-layered structure called the XXXXXXXXX.

Gastrula

What layer of tissues is composed of the integument (including the epidermis, hair, nails, and epithelium of the nose, mouth, and anal canal), the lens of the eye, the retina, and the nervous system?

Ectoderm

What layer of tissue is composed of the epithelial linings of the digestive and respitory tracts, (including the lungs), and parts of the liver, pancreas, thyroid, and bladder lining.

Endoderm

What layer of tissue is composed of the musculoskeletal system, circulatory system, excretory system, gonads, connective tissue throughout the body, and portions of digestive and respiratory organs?

Mesoderm

What organisms lay eggs that are fertilized externally in the water?

Fish and Amphibians

What type of organisms develope externally on land?

Reptiles, birds, and some mammals

What is the term used to describe the material that lines the inside of thre shell, it is a moist membrane that permits gas exchange?

Chorion

What is the term used to describe the sac-like structure that is involved in respiration and excretion and contains numerous blood vessels to transport Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, water, salt, and nitrogenous wastes?

Allantois

What is the term used to describe the membrane that encloses the amniotic fluid?

Amnion

What is the term used to describe the material that provides an aqueous environment which protects the developing embryo from shock?

Amnion

Certain animals including marsupials and some tropical fish develop in the mother without a XXXXXXXXXX?

Placenta

Without a placenta, exchange of food and oxygen between the young and the mother is XXXXXXXXXXXXX. The young may be born very XXXXXXXX?

Limited/Young

Gas exchange in the fetus occurs accross the XXXXXXXXX?

Placenta

Fetal lungs do not become functional until XXXXXXXXX?

Birth

The growing fetus recieves oxygen directly from its mother through a specialized circulatory system. This system not only supplies oxygen and nutrients to the fetus, but removes carbon dioxide and nitrogenous wastes as well? WHat are the two components of this sytem?(2)

1. Placenta 2. Umbilical Cord

What is the term used to describe a thin, tough membrane containing a watery fluid? It is the first membrane in a fetus?

Amnion

What is the term used to describe a substance that acts as a shock absorber of external localized pressure from uterine contractions during labor?

Amniotic Fluid

What is the term used to describe the membrane that completely surrounds the amnion. This is the second layer in the human embryo?

Chorion

What is the term used to describe the thrid membrane, developes as outpocket of the gut, later the blood vessels of this membrane enlarge and become the umbilical chord, which connects the fetus to the developing placenta?

Allantois

What is the term used to describe the last membrane of the fetus, that becomes associated with the umbilical vessels?

Yolk Sac

What stage of labor is it when the cervix thins out and dialates, and the amniotic sac ruptures releasing fluids, during this time contractions are relatively mild?

Stage 1

What stage of labor is characterized by rapid contractions, resulting in birth of the baby, followed by cutting of the umbilical chord?

Second Stage

What stage of labor is characterized by the uterus contracting, and expels the placenta and umbilical chord?

3rd stage (Final)

In protozoans, movement of gases and nutrients is accomplished by XXXXXXX XXXXXXXX within the cell.

Simple Diffusion

Hydras and cnidarians have body walls that are XXXXX cells thick?

Two

Do Hydras and Cnidarians have specialized circulatory sytems?

No

What type of circulatory system do arthropods have?

Open Circulatory systems

What is the term used to describe in which blood (interstitial fluid) is in direct contact with bodily fluids?

Open Circulatory System

In an Arthropod open circulatory system blood flows through a XXXXXX XXXXXXX and into spaces called XXXXXXXX where exchange occurs?

Dorsal Vessel/sinuses

WHat type of circulatory system do annelids such as earthworms use?

Closed circulatory systems

What is the term used to describe a system that delivers materials to cells that are not in direct contact with the external environment?

Closed circulatory system

In a closed circulatory system were is blood confined to?

Blood Vessels

WHat functions as a heart in a closed circulatory system?

Dorsal Vessels

What is the term used to describe Five pairs of vessels that connect the dorsal vessel to the ventral vessels and functions as additional pumps?

Aortic Loops

WHat does earthworm blood lack?

Red Blood Cells

Oxygentated blood is pumped from the left ventrical to the XXXXXXXX in humans?

Aorta

What do the arteries branch into?

Arterioles

WHat do the Arterioles eventually turn into?

Capillaries

Exchange of gases, nurtients, and cellular waste products occurs via diffusion across XXXXXXXX walls.

Capillary

The capillaries converge into XXXXXX, and eventually into XXXXXXX, leading deoxygenated blood through the inferior and superior vena cava back towards the heart?

Venules/Veins

Deoxygenated blood enters through the XXXXXXXX XXXXXX of the heart.

Right Atrium

Oxygentated blood returns to the heart via the XXXXXXXX XXXX to enter the XXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXX, which sends the blood to the XXXXXXXXX XXXXXXX.

Pulmonary vein/Left Atrium/Left Ventricle

The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated to to the XXXXXXX?

Lungs

The left side of the heart pumps oxygentated blood to the XXXXXXXX?

Body

What is the term used to describe blood pumped to the lungs?

pulmonary circulation

What is the term used to describe blood pumped throughout the body?

Systemic Circulation

What are the two upper chambers of the heart called?

Atria

WHat are the two lower chambers of the heart called?

Ventricles

WHat are the three types of blood vessels?

1. Arteries 2. Veins 3. Capillaries

What is the term used to describe thick-walled, muscular, elastic vessels that transport oxygenated blood away from the heart?

Arteries

What is the term used to describe relatively thinly walled, inelastic vessels that conduct deoxygenated blood towards the heart.

Veins

What is the term used to describe very thinned wall structure used for circulation, composed of a single layer of endothelial cells accross which respiratory gases, nutrients, enzymes, hormones and wastes can readily diffuse.

Capillaries

What is the term used to describe the secondary circulatory system distinct from the cardiovascular circulation?

Lymphatic system

What is the term used to describe swellings along lymph vessels containing phagocytic cells that filter the lymph, removing and destroying foreign particles and pathogens?

Lymph nodes

On Average how many liters of blood does the human body contain?

4-6 liters

Blood has what percentage of liquid, and what percentage of cellular components?

55/45

WHat are the cellular components of blood?(3)

1. Erythrocytes 2. Leukocytes 3. Platlets

What is the term used to describe the oxygen-carrying component of blood?

Erythrocytes (red Blood Cell)

How many molecules of hemoglobin does an erythrocyte contain?

250 million

What is the term used to describe when a hemoglobin binds to an oxygen?

Oxyhemoglobin

How are erythrocytes formed?

Stem cells in the bone marrow

What organelles do erythrocytes lack? (3)

1. Nucleii 2. Mitochondria 3. Membraneous organelles

What is the term used to describe a large cell with protective functions that can phagocytize matter and organisms such as bacteria?

Leukocytes

What is the term used to describe a stationary leukocyte that has migrated from blood tissue?

Macrophages

Another white blood cell that is involved in immune response and the production of antibodies (B cells) or cytolysis of infected cells (T cells)?

Lymphocytes

What is the term used to describe cell fragments that lack nuceii and are involved in clot formation?

Platelets

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