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Balkan region

Romania,Bulgaria,Serbia,Greece,Montenegro.

Body of Civil Law

Corpus Juris Civilus; common law during Byzantine Empire; code of Roman laws; basis of imperial laws; result of inheirited materials; simplified b/c if Justinian. Justinian's codification of Roman law; revised Roman law as coherent basis for political and economic life.

Byzantine Empire

Long lasting empire centered at Constantinople; it grew out of the end of the Roman empire and carried legacy of Roman greatness and was the only classical society to survive the early modern age; it reached its early peak during the reign of Justinian.

Caesaropapism

Concept relating to the mixing of political and religious authority, as with the Roman emperors, that was central to the church versus state controversy in medieval Eurpoe.

Constantinople

Emperor Constantine,AD 330 moved the capital from Rome to the Greek city Byzantium in the east, and renamed the city. This city became the capital of the Roman empire. It was strategically located for trade and defense purposes.

Mongols

Central Asian nomadic peoples; smashed Turko-Persian kingdoms; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed last Abbasid caliph. , A member of any of the traditionally nomadic peoples of Mongolia.

Nestorians

Early branch of Christians, named after Greek theologian Nertorius, emphasized the human nature of Jesus Christ,

Ottoman Empire

Powerful Turkish empire that lasted from the conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453 until 1918 and reached its peak during the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent.

Saljuq Turks (Seljuk Turks)

Turkish tribe that gained control over the Abbasid empire and fought with the Byzantine empire.

Samarkand

During the rule of Timur Lane was the most influential captial city, a wealthy trading center known for decorated mosques and tombs.

Tamerland

Timur the Land, Timur-i lang, lame conqueror with a limp. Conqueror.

Yuan Dynasty

Chinese dynasty that was founded by the Mongol ruler Khubilai Khan.

Yurts

Tents used by nomadic Turkish and Mongol tribes.

Dark ages

Time period in Europe following the fall of Rome; life was chaotic; no central government; ended when Charlemagne became 1st Holy Roman Emeror in 800.

Charlemagne

Germanic king of the Franks who was a famous military leader, improved life, established order, supported edcuation and culture, joined by pope and church, eventually became emperor.

Clovis

King of Franks; conquered Gaul; earned support of Gaul and Church of Rome by converting to Christianity; Ruled lands in Frankish custom but kept Roman legacy

Feudalism

A political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service.`

Lord

Owner of land (fiefs) and vassals.

Manorialism

System that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; involved hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor or rents for access to land.

Monasticism

A way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith.

Norse

The northern family of Germanic languages that are spoken in Scandinavia and Iceland.

Papacy

The government of the Roman Catholic Church.

Primogeniture

Seniority by birth; state of being the first-born child; right of the eldest child (to inherit the entire property of one or both parents).

Serfs

Men of women who were the poorest members of society, peasants who worked the lord's land in exchange for protection.

Vassal

In feudalism, those under the rule of the lord who paid him in labor or services, usually held a fief (land).

Vikings

A Scandinavian people, were independent farmers ruled by land-owning chieftains. They were also skilled sailors. Beginning in the late 8th century C.E., they began raiding and pillaging communities along the coasts and rivers of Europe. They also engaged in trade and exploration in northern Europe, the Mediterranean, and even North America, where they briefly established a colony.

Bubonic Plague

Disease brought to Europe from the Mongols during the Middle Ages. It killed 1/3 of the population and helps end Feudalism.

Chinggis Khan

Born in 1170s in decades following death of Kabul Khan; elected khagan of all MOngol tribes in 1206; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China, territories as far west as the Abbasid regions; died in 1227 prior to conquest of most of the Islamic world. United Mongol and Turkish tribes.

Golden Horde

A group of Huns that ravenged the Roman empire, burned down Kiev. Adopted both the Turkic language and Islam.

Istanbul

Christian Constantinople renamed Muslim Istanbul., capital of the Ottoman Empire; previously Constantinople; est. by Sultan Mehud II.

Kamikaze

A Japanese term meaning "divine wind" that is related to the storms that destroyed Mongol invasion fleets; the term is symbolic of Japanese isolation and was later taken by suicide pilots in World War 2.

Karakorum

Capital est. by Chinggis Khan; present-day Har Horin; symbolized a source of Mongol authority superior to the clan or tribe.

Khan

Title given to Mongol leaders, meaning "supreme ruler".

Khanates

four divisions of the Mongol world - Chaghadai, Persia, Kipchak (Golden Horde), and Yuan dynasty in China.

Kublai Khan

Started the Yuan Dynasty; defeated the Song dynasty; was a mongol; promotes trade because interested in foreiners; extends grand canal; builds highways; built postal service; allows confucionism; allows chinese to participate in government (but not in high postions - those were for mongols); doesn't let chinese in military (scared they will rebel); keeps the mongols seperated from the chinese; loses when trying to defeat japan.

Mamluks

Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria.

Benin

African kingdom around the Niger River Known for metalworking, destruction because of slave trade.

Chiefdoms

Sociopolitical organization intermediate between the tribe and state; kin-based, differential access to resources and permanent political structure. Full-time priesthood and may be hereditary - Olympian or monotheistic religions. Examples - Polynesia, Mesopotamia, and ancient Egypt.

Ethiopia

A Christian kingdom that developed in the highlands of eastern Africa under the dynasty of King Lalaibela; retained Christianity in the face of Muslim expansion elsewhere in Africa.

Gao

Prosperous capital city of the kingdom of Songhai, had caravan trade routes.

Ghana

Kingdon in west Africa whose rulers eventually converted to Islam; its power and wealth was based on dominating trans-Saharan trade.

Great Zimbabwe

Large sub-Saharan African kingdom in the fifteenth century.

Griots

Professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings within the Mali Empire.

Ife

The capital of Yoruba people; produced handsome bronze and iron statues.

Jenne

City with a famous mosque; it's the worlds largest building made of mud.

Kongo

Central African state that began trading with the Portuguese, although their kings, such as King Affonso, converted to Christianity, they neverthless suffered from the slave trade.

Mali

West African kingdom founded in the thirteenth century by Sundiata; it reached its peak during the reign of Mansa Musa.

Mansa Musa

King of the Mali empire in West Africa, is known mostly for his fabulous pilgrimage to Mecca and for his promotion of unity and prosperity within Mali.

Stateless societies

Societies organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority associated with states.

Sundiata

Founder of the Mali empire, also the inspiration for the Sundiata, an African literary and mythological work.

Swahili (city-states)

"coasters"; introduced agriculture, cattle herding, and iron metallurgy to the region; founded complex societies by small, local states; spoke Swahili (Bantu language).

Timbuktu

City on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000. As part of the Mali empire, it became a major major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning.

Eastern Orthodox Church

Church of Byzstantine Empire. Split from Roman Catholic Church. Shaped art laws and customs in Russia. Schism.

Greek fire

Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals (petroleum, quicklime, sulfur) that ignited when exposed to water; utilized to drive back Arab fleets that attacked Constantinople.

Haiga sophia

The Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Constantinople, built by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian.

Iconoclasm

The breaking of images; a religious controvery of the 8th century; Byzantine emperor attempted, but failed, to surpress icon veneration.

Justinian

Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code.

Kiev Rus

One of the first Russian cities. Influenced by monastaries. Had an influence on the western writing system.

Mosaic

Art consisting of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass.

Prince Vladimir

Ruler of Kiev who converts to eastern orthodox christianity rather than roman catholic; influenced Russians to convert to Christianity.

Saint Cyril

Created Cyrillic alphabet.

Schism

Division; split.

Saint Basil

an Eastern Church father. Eastern Christianity is largely based upon his writings. He wrote 357 influential rules for monks.

Theme system

This system divided the Byzantine Empire into different districts that were each led by a general, they were created so that the military could respond quickly to attacks, also peasants who joined the army were given plots of land, thereby increasing the free peasant class.

Abu Bakr

One of Muhammad's earliest converts; succeeded Muhammad as first caliph of Islamic community

Abbasid dynasty

Dynasty that overthrew the umayyad dynasty to rule the muslim caliphate from 750 to 1258; for 150 years the abbasids maintained the unity of the caliphate and islamic culture and civilization flourished.

Allah

Muslim/Islamic/Arabic name for the one and only God.

Arabic numerals

Type of numbers introduced to Europeans by Arab (Muslim) mathematicians.

Baghdad

Capital city of Iraq. As heart of the Arab Empire, it was second only to Constantinople in terms of size and grandeur in 1000 C.E.

Bedouin peoples

Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam.

Berbers

A largely nomadic North African people.

Caliph

A supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government.

Cordoba

Muslims created the city of Cordoba which is the center of politics and culture in spain.

Dar al Islam

An Arabic term that means the "house of Islam" and that refers to lands under Islamic rule.

Dhimmis

A non-Muslim subject of a state governed in accordance with sharia law. The term connotes several restrictions, such as a poll tax known as the jizya.

Five pillars

The obligatory religious duties of all Muslims; confession of faith, prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, and hajj.

Haji

A pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims, one of the five pillars.

Hijra

The Migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622, marking the founding of Islam.

Iberian Peninsula

Spain and Portugal.

Islam

The monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran.

Jihad

Islamic holy war/struggle.

Jizya

Tax imposed on non-muslims.

Ka'ba

A rectangular/cubed-shaped temple in Mecca - center of Islamic Pilgrimage and houses the Ka'ba stone.

Madrasas

Islamic institutions of higher education (colleges).

Mecca

The holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace, ritual center for those of Islamic religion, in western Saudi Arabia.

Minaret

Tower used to call Muslims to prayer.

Mosque

(Islam) a Muslim place of worship.

Muhammad

The Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632).

Muslim

A believer or follower of Islam.

Qadis

Islamic Judges.

Quran

The holy book of Islam.

Ramadan

Ninth month of the Muslim calendar marked by fasting.

Seal of the prophets

Name recognizing Muhammad as the last and greatest prophet.

Sharia

Islamic Law.

Shia

A Muslim group that accepts only the descendants of Muhammed's son-in-law Ali as the true rulers of Islam.

Sufis

A mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life, missionaries.

Sultan

"Overlord", the ruler of a Muslim country (especially of the former Ottoman Empire).

Sunni

A follower of the majority branch of Islam, which feels that successors to Muhammad are to be chosen by the Muslim community.

The Thousand and One Nights

A group of tales narrated by a fictional princess, many are set in baghdad, include romances, fables, adventures, best known for Aladdin and the magic lamp - to save herself from being killed.

Ulama

Orthodox religious scholars within Islam; pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology; increasingly opposed to non-Islamic ideas and scientific thinking.

Umayyad

First, ruling dynasty over the Muslim Caliphate, the first dynasty of Arab caliphs whose capital was Damascus, sunni caliphs.

Umma

Muslim religious community.

Bushido

The Samurai Code of Rules/The way of the warrior.

Chan Buddhism

Known as Zen in Japan; stressed meditation of appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular with members of elite Chinese society. Like Daoism.

Chang-an

Tang capital.

Daimyo

Means "great names", heads of noble families in Japan who controlled vast landed estates and relied on samurai for protection.

Equal field system

Agricultural reform favoring the peasants under the Tang dynasty in China, inheritance system where 1/5 of the land when to the peasant's descendants and the rest went to the government.

Flying cash

Enabled merchants to deposit good or cash at one location and draw the equivalent in cash or merchandise elsewhere in China.

Foot binding

Male-imposed practice to mutilate women's feet in order to reduce size; produced pain and restricted movement; helped to confine women to the household. Song dynasty.

Grand Canal

The 1,100-mile (1,700-kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire.

Hangzhou

Capital of later Song dynasty; located near East China Sea; permitted overseas trading; population exceeded 1 million.

Heian Japan

A period in time where cultural development took place. Japan's ideas, traditions, and culture, was influence by Chinese cultures.

Magnetic compass

Chinese invention that aided navigation by showing which direction was north.

Mahayana Buddhism

Chinese version of Buddhism; placed considerable emphasis on Buddha as god or savior. "Great vehicle" branch of Buddhism followed in China, Japan, and Central Asia. The focus is on reverence for Buddha and for bodhisattvas, enlightened persons who have postponed nirvana to help others attain enlightenment.

Meritocracy

Level of skill and knowledge not family relationships of family wealth.

Moveable Type

Invented in Song China, Allowed mass production of writings which made people more educated because there was more availability of book. Allowed religious ideas to be spread easier.

Nara Japan

Japanese period (710-794) centered around city of Nara, that was the highest point of Chinese influence.

Neo-Confucianism

Term that describes the resurgence of Confucianism and the influence of Confucian scholars during the T'ang Dynasty; a unification of Daoist or Buddhist metaphysics with Confucian pragmatism.

Samurai

A Japanese warrior who was a member of the feudal military aristocracy.

Seppuku

Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor.

Silla kingdom

Independent Korean kingdom in the southeast part of the peninsulal defeated Koguryo with the help of their chinese Tang allies; sumbitted as a vassal of the Tang emperor and agreed to tribute payment; united Korea by 668.

Song dynasty

This dynasty was started by Tai Zu; by 1000, a million people were living there; started feet binding; had a magnetic compass; had a navy; traded with india and persia (brought pepper and cotton); first to have paper money, explosive gun powder; landscape black and white paintings. Also a golden age. Mongols took them over.

Sui dynasty

The short dynasty between the Han and the Tang; built the Grand Canal, strengthened the government, and introduced Buddhism to China.

Taika Reforms

Attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army.

Tang dynasty

Cosmopolitan, Emperor Wu (female), Golden age, equal field system, expands from Vietnam to Manchuria, Buddism.

The Tale of Genji

Written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any languange; relates life history of prominent and amorous son of the Japanese emperor's son; evidence for mannered style of the Japanese society.

Trung Sisters

Leaders of one of the frequent peasant rebellions in Vietnam against Chinese rule; revolt broke out in 39 c.e.; demonstrates importance of Vietnamese women in indigenous society.

Vietnam

Rebelled against China.

Xuanzang

Empress Wu's grandson, became emperor of China. He welcomed artists to his splendid court. , Buddhist monk that illegally visited India; popularized Buddhism in China (629 C.E.).

Angkor

Present day Cambodia, formed when Jayavarman united the Khmer people and established a capital at Angor Thom, was the most powerful state in mainland southeast Asia for hundreds of years.

Angkor Wat

A temple complex built in the Khmer Empire and dedicated to the Hindu God, Vishnu.

Axum

Axum was a trading center and a powerful ancient kingdom in northern present-day Ethiopia.

Chola Kingdom

Kingdom situated in the deep south. At its high point, Chola forces conquered Ceylon and parts of southeast Asia, funded by the profits of trade, dominated the sea, did not build a tightly centralized state.

Dhows

Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design.

Funan

An early complex society in Southeast Asia between the first and sixth centuries C.E. It was centered in the rich rice-growing region of southern Vietnam, and it controlled the passage of trade across the Malaysian isthmus.

Guilds

Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests.

Indian Ocean trade

Connected to Europe, Africa, and China.; worlds richest maritime trading network and an area of rapid Muslim expansion.

Jati

Means "caste" in Hindu society.

Java

Island where the Dutch established a fort whose purpose was to protect Dutch possessions in the East. Portuguese.

Junks

Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula.

Melaka

The first major center of Islam in Southeast Asia, a port kingdom on the southwestern coast of the Malay Peninsula.

Raja

A Hindu prince or king in India.

Shiva

Destroys one cycle of life so that a new cycle can begin. (In Judaism) a period of seven days of mourning after the death of close relative.

Srivijava

Kingdom from 670 - 1025 Based in Sumatra Powerful navy that controlled the commerce in SE Asia.

Sultanate of Delhi

Unstable kingdom in North India founded by the Ghaznavids. This invasion was more systematic than Mahmud's and after it succedded, the capital was established at Delhi. Raided south India. 19 of 35 sultans were assasinated. Established Islam in India. No military or bureaucracy.

Vishnu

Vishnu is a Hindu god who, in the trinity of gods, is the Preserver.

Trans Saharan trade

Major trade route that traded for gold and salt, created caravan routes, economic benefit for controlling dessert, camels played a huge role in the trading.

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