Count Camillo di Cavour
Prime minister of Sardinia (northern Italy) who vowed to drive out the Austrians and worked towards a united Italy.
Italian nationalist who set up the "Young Italy" group and tried to create a revolutionary republic in Rome.
Italian nationalist whose "Red Shirts" freed Sicily and southern Italy and then united it with northern Italy.
First King of Italy, who was originally king of Sardinia.
Emperor of France who helped Italy drive out Austria from parts of its land.
Kingdom of Sardinia
Strong state in northern Italy which started the unification movement.
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
State in southern Italy which only joined the rest of Italy after a revolution.
Rome (Papal States)
Last state to join Italy (after the Franco-Prussian War), completing its unification.
Ruler of Prussia, who made Otto von Bismarck a chancellor. Later became king of all of Germany.
Otto von Bismarck
Prime minister of Prussia, later became chancellor of Germany. Led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the unification of the German states.
German state which led the unification movement and was the most powerful portion of the newly-created Germany.
German state which tried to stop unification and never became part of the German Empire.
Nation with which Austria and Prussia fought over smaller German states.
German states controlled by Denmark which Prussia was able to win in a series of wars. Their acquisition brought Germany closer to unification.
Last step in German unification because it brought the southern German states together with the North German Confederation in defense against France.
North German Confederation
Result of end of Austria-Prussian War, Austria doesn't get involved in German affairs, North German Confederation made under rulership of Prussia. Major step towards German unification.
Germany and Italy finally become united nation-states.