consists of strategic concepts and COAs directed toward securing the objectives of national and multinational policies and strategies through the synchronized and integrated employment of military forces and other instruments of national power
CCDRs develop _________ after reviewing the operational environment, nature of anticipated operations, and national and multinational strategic direction.
In the _________, commanders focus on the threat and consider other circumstances affecting the military situation as they develop and analyze COAs
__________ allow for the employment of theater nuclear forces, conventional and special operations forces, space assets, military assistance from all Services, combat support agencies, and supporting commands, multinational forces, and interagency resources in each COA.
Theater strategic concepts
Theater strategic concepts determine when, where, and for what purpose major forces will be employed and consider the following:
) The law of war, implementation of national policies, and protection of US citizens, forces, and interests.
(b) Integration of deterrence measures and transition to combat operations.
(c) Adjustments for multinational, interagency, IGO, OGA or NGO circumstances.
(d) Identification of potential military requirements across the range of military operations.
(e) Support for security assistance or nation assistance.
(f) Inputs to higher strategies or subordinate
How would you describe the major doctrinal categories and types of military operations?
- military engagement,
- security cooperation,
- deterrence activities
- crisis response
- limited contingency operations and,
- if necessary, major operations and campaigns
Use of joint capabilities in ___________, _________, and _________ helps shape the operational environment and keep the day-to-day tensions between nations or groups below the threshold of armed conflict while maintaining US global influence.
military engagement, security cooperation, and deterrence activities
Individual ______ and _______ often contribute to a larger, long-term effort (e.g., Operation ENDURING FREEDOM [OEF], which is part of the GWOT).
major operations and campaigns
These ongoing and specialized activities establish, shape, maintain, and refine relations with other nations and domestic civil authorities (e.g., state governors or local law enforcement).
The general strategic and operational objective is to protect US interests at home and abroad.
- Military Engagement,
- Security Cooperation, and
_________ is the routine contact and interaction between individuals or elements of the Armed Forces of the United States and those of another nation's armed forces, or foreign and domestic civilian authorities or agencies to build trust and confidence, share information, coordinate mutual activities, and maintain influence
____________ involves all DOD interactions with foreign defense establishments to build defense relationships that promote specific US security interests, develop allied and friendly military capabilities for self-defense and multinational operations, and provide US forces with peacetime and contingency access to a host nation (HN).
_________ helps prevent adversary action through the presentation of a credible threat of counteraction.
A ___________ or ________ can be a single small-scale, limited-duration operation or a significant part of a major operation of extended duration involving combat.
crisis response or limited contingency operation
When required to achieve national strategic objectives or protect national interests, the US national leadership may decide to conduct a ________ involving large-scale combat, placing the United States in a wartime state
major operation or campaign
In a major operation or campaign, the general goal is _______ against the enemy as quickly as possible, conclude hostilities, and establish conditions favorable to the HN and the United States and its multinational partners.
True or False
Some specific crisis-response or limited contingency operations may not involve large-scale combat, but could be considered major operations or campaigns depending on their scale and duration
How would you describe the overall effect on CCDR planning efforts when military operations occur simultaneously?
Major operations and campaigns can be initiated while security cooperation activities are ongoing in the same or another part of the theater (e.g., OEF during the enforcement of United Nations [UN] sanctions on Iraq).
Further, a crisis response or limited contingency operation may be initiated separately or as part of a campaign or major operation (e.g., the 1991 NEO in Somalia during Operation DESERT SHIELD).
GCCs should pay particular attention to synchronizing and integrating the activities of assigned, attached, and supporting forces through subordinate and supporting JFCs to achieve national, theater, and/or multinational strategic objectives.
True OR False
Some military operations may be conducted for one purpose. Often, military operations will have multiple purposes and be influenced by a fluid and changing situation.
Examples of Crisis response and limited contingency operations
employment of overwhelming force in PEO, a single precision strike, a NEO, or CS mission.
If the crisis is within US territory (e.g., natural or man-made disaster, deliberate attack), US joint forces will conduct _________ as directed by the President and SecDef.
If the crisis is caused by an internal conflict that threatens regional stability, US forces _____________ (e.g., Operation RESTORE DEMOCRACY, the 1994 intervention in Haiti).
may intervene to restore or guarantee stability
Crisis response and limited contingency operations are typically ________ and __________ in an operational area.
limited in scope and scale and conducted to achieve a very specific strategic or operational objective
How would you explain the importance of political objectives in termination planning? (p 255, 261)
Termination of operations must be considered from the outset of planning in a coordinated effort with relevant agencies, organizations, and multinational partners. The ability to understand how and when to terminate operations is instrumental to operational design.
First, having an understanding of the political objective helps avoid actions that may have adverse effects.
Secondly, commanders should remain aware of changes not only in the operational situation, but also to changes in political objectives that may warrant a change in military operations
operations directed by the DOS or other appropriate authority, in conjunction with the DOD, whereby noncombatants are evacuated from foreign countries when their lives are endangered by war, civil unrest, or natural disaster to safe havens or to the United States
Pursuant to Executive Order 12656, the _______ is responsible for the protection and evacuation of American citizens abroad and for safeguarding their property
WHO is responsible for preparation of emergency action plans that address the military evacuation of US citizens and designated foreign nationals from a foreign country?
The US ambassador, or chief of the diplomatic mission,
The conduct of military operations to assist in the implementation of emergency action plans is the responsibility of the _________, as directed by SecDef.
How do NEOs are similar to a raid?
in that the operation involves swift insertion of a force, temporary occupation of physical objectives, and ends with a planned withdrawal
How do NEOs differ from a raid?
force used normally is limited to that required to protect the evacuees and the evacuation force
are multiagency and multinational operations involving all instruments of national power; including international humanitarian and reconstruction efforts and military missions; to contain conflict, redress the peace, and shape the environment to support reconciliation and rebuilding and facilitate the transition to legitimate governance
are military operations undertaken with the consent of all major parties to a dispute, designed to monitor and facilitate implementation of an agreement (cease fire, truce, or other such agreements) and support diplomatic efforts to reach a long-term political settlement.
PKO (i.e. MNF Observers in the Sinai)
are the application of military force or threat of its use, normally pursuant to international authorization, to compel compliance with resolutions or sanctions designed to maintain or restore peace and order.
PEO may include:
- the enforcement of sanctions and exclusion zones,
- protection of FHA,
- restoration of order, and
- forcible separation of belligerent parties or parties to a dispute.
Such actions are often taken under the authority of Chapter VI of the UN Charter
such operations do not require the consent of the states involved or of other parties to the conflict
consists of stability actions (predominantly diplomatic, economic, and security related) that strengthen and rebuild governmental infrastructure and institutions, build confidence, and support economic reconstruction to prevent a return to conflict
PB (i.e. rebuild roads, re-establish or create govt entities, or train defense forces)
is the process of diplomacy, mediation, negotiation, or other forms of peaceful settlement that arranges an end to a dispute or resolves issues that led to conflict. It can be an ongoing process, supported by military, economic, and IO
consists of diplomatic and other actions taken in advance of a predictable crisis to prevent or limit violence, deter parties, and reach an agreement before armed hostilities
operations relieve or reduce the impact of natural or man-made disasters or other endemic conditions such as human pain, disease, hunger, or privation in countries or regions outside the United States.
Foreign Humanitarian Assistance (FHA)
Within DOD, the ___________ has the overall responsibility for developing the military policy for international FHA operations.
Undersecretary of Defense for Policy
US military forces participate in three basic types of FHA operations—
- those coordinated by the UN,
- those where the United States acts in concert with other multinational forces, or
- those where the United States responds unilaterally.
Operation PROVIDE RELIEF and RESTORE HOPE
airlift of food/supplies for starving somali's;
distribution was haphazard and subject to banditry;
multinational humanitarian assistance, united task force (unitaf) somalia;
uncertainty, instability, proliferation of weapons during civil war
Lessons Learned during Op ATLAS RESPONSE
- supporting the essentially civil-run operation and providing effective counsel worked far better than trying to control the operation as a supported commander
- civil-military operations center (CMOC) was key to working with the participating IGOs and NGOs
- early development of an exit strategy provided decision points with tangible measures
may be conducted to search for, locate, identify, recover, and return isolated personnel, sensitive equipment, items critical to national security, or human remains
actions taken to maintain or restore essential services and manage and mitigate problems resulting from disasters and catastrophes, including natural, man-made, or terrorist incidents
_____ is the federal agency with lead responsibility for foreign CM and _____ is the "Primary Agency" for domestic CM.
are attacks conducted to damage or destroy an objective or a capability. May be used to punish offending nations or groups, uphold international law, or prevent those nations or groups from launching their own attacks
Strikes (i.e. Op EL DORADO CANYON)
operations to temporarily seize an area, usually through forcible entry, in order to secure information, confuse an adversary, capture personnel or equipment, or destroy an objective or capability
Raids (Operation URGENT FURY)
Operation ELDORADO CANYON
Strike; libya, gaddafi, < 12 minutes, 60 tones of munitions
the protection of US sovereignty, territory, domestic population, and critical defense infrastructure against external threats and aggression or other threats as directed by the President
consists of DOD support to US civil authorities for domestic emergencies, and for designated law enforcement and other activities. Requests for federal assistance of this nature must be submitted to the DOD Executive Secretary
When ordered to conduct HD operations within US territory, DOD will:
coordinate closely with OGAs
is the primary Federal mechanism through which DOD support is requested for domestic emergencies.
- describes the policies, planning assumptions, and a CONOPS that guide federal operations following a Presidential declaration of a major disaster or emergency.
is essential to supplement other forms of intelligence and information collection to produce the most accurate intelligence products
Where there is little USG or US military presence, _________ may be the best immediately available information to prepare US forces to operate in a foreign country
open-source intelligence (OSINT)
_________ activities demonstrate our commitment, lend credibility to our alliances, enhance regional stability, and provide a crisis response capability while promoting US influence and access
encompasses those planning activities undertaken to ensure DOD processes, procedures, and resources are in place to support the President and SecDef in a designated national security emergency
Emergency Preparedness (EP)
Types of EP activities and operations
- Continuity of Operations (COOP)
- Continuity of Government
- Other EP Roles
ensures the degree or state of being continuous in the conduct of functions, tasks, or duties necessary to accomplish a military action or mission in carrying out the national military strategy
Continuity of operations (COOP)
involves a coordinated effort within each USG branch (executive, legislative, and judicial) to ensure the capability to continue minimum essential functions and responsibilities during a catastrophic emergency
Continuity of government
means the identification, verification, inspection, limitation, control, reduction, or elimination of armed forces and armaments of all kinds under international agreement including the necessary steps taken under such an agreement to establish an effective system of international control, or to create and strengthen international organizations for the maintenance of peace
Arms control and disarmament
Types of Activities that Fall under Mil Engagement, Sec Coop, and Deterrence: (12)
- Emergency Preparedness
- Arms control and disarmament
- Combating Terrorism
- DoD Support to Counterdrug Ops
- Enforcement of Sanctions
- Enforcing Exclusion Zones
- Ensure Freedom of Navigation and Overflight
- Nation Assistance is Civil or Mil Assistance
- Protection of Shipping
- Show of Force
- Support of Insurgency
- Counterinsurgency Ops
This effort involves actions taken to oppose terrorism from wherever the threat exists. It includes antiterrorism—defensive measures taken to reduce vulnerability to terrorist acts—and counterterrorism—offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, preempt, and respond to terrorism
involves defensive measures used to reduce the vulnerability of individuals and property to terrorist acts, to include limited response and containment by local military forces and civilians
involves measures that include operations to prevent, deter, preempt, and respond to terrorism. Normally require specially trained personnel capable of mounting swift and effective action
Counterterrorism (special ops core task)
operations that employ coercive measures to interdict the movement of certain types of designated items into or out of a nation or specified area
Enforcement of sanctions
a form of maritime interdiction that may include seaborne coercive enforcement measures
Maritime interception operations
is established by a sanctioning body to prohibit specified activities in a specific geographic area
(maybe imposed by UN or intl body)
What is the goal of Nation Assistance is civil or military assistance (other than FHA) ?
Promote long term regional stability
Examples of Nation Assistance activities:
- Security Assistance
- FID Programs
- HCA (medical, dental, vet care, well drilling, )
US forces provide protection of US flag vessels, US citizens (whether embarked in US or foreign vessels), and US property against unlawful violence in and over international waters
Protection of Shipping
Actions to protect shipping include:
- coastal sea control,
- harbor defense,
- port security,
- countermine operations, and
- environmental defense, in addition to operations on the high seas
Protection of shipping may require a combination of operations to be successful (4)
- Area of Ops
- Escort Ops
- Mine Countermeasures Ops
- Environmental defense Ops
How do lessons learned in Afghanistan and Iraq suggest "new adversaries and operational environments necessitate a sharper focus on cultural knowledge of the enemy?" (Author: McFate)
- At the STRATEGIC level, misunderstanding culture at a strategic level can produce policies that exacerbate an insurgency;
- At the OPERATIONA level, a lack of cultural knowledge at an operational level can lead to negative public opinion; and
- At the TACTICAL level, ignorance of the culture at a tactical level endangers both civilians and troops
Based on lessons learned in Afghanistan and Iraq, what possible solutions should the US military consider to counter unfriendly environments?
- using preexisting indigenous systems creates legitimacy for the actions of the occupying power,
- indigenous social organization (including tribal and kinship relationships) determines the structure of the insurgency, and
- avoiding the imposition of foreign norms will generate public cooperation
How would you describe non-combative, military operations that serve as a deterrent?
sustained joint force presence that promotes a secure environment in which diplomatic, economic, and informational programs are designed to reduce the causes of instability
--- demonstrated commitment
--- enhance regional stability
--- crisis response capability
--- promoting US influence
Dr. Crane (Habeck's article) concluded with emphasis on two points:
1st -- organizational rotations are not necessarily better than individual replacements at the higher levels
2nd -- main goal of CENTCOM and CFLCC was to prevent an insurgency, not defeat one
Dr. Bensahel had three lessons that can be learned from the Iraq situation
- Post-war planning cannot be separated from war planning
- Ground forces need to be prepared to take on stabilization and reconstruction tasks after the conflict
- Effective civilian interagency preparations and planning are needed to increase the capacity to handle reconstruction roles