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Archaic; sixth century B.C.E.

1. If Sarah is in a museum looking at Greek sculpture and she sees a stiff standing figure with clenched fists stepping forward with a straightened leg, which period of Greek sculpture can she attribute it to, and when did this period begin?

A. Archaic; sixth century B.C.E.
B. Early classical; 480 B.C.E.
C. High classical; middle of the fifth century B.C.E.
D. Late classical; fourth century B.C.E.

Early classical; "severe style"

2. The Kritios Boy stands in contrapposto. Which period of Greek sculpture do he and the contrapposto stance represent, and what is that period also known as?

A. Archaic; "old style"
B. Early classical; "severe style"
C. High classical; "ornate style"
D. Late classical; "perfect style"

red-figure technique

3. The ancient Greeks utilized two different techniques for vase painting. The technique that shows arms and legs reaching out or moving in space is known as the

A. black-figure technique.
B. ground line technique.
C. red-figure technique.
D. doric technique.

Head size to body size; a high classical statue is about six heads in height

4. What relationship was established by the canon of proportion, and how is this relationship exhibited in high classical statue?

A. Head size to body size; a high classical statue is about six heads in height
B. Hand size to body size; a high classical statue is about eight and a half hands in height
C. Chest width to hip width; a high classical statue's chest is one and a half times as wide as the hips
D. Proportional thirds; the chest and head, torso, and legs each account for one third of a high classical statue's height

. with its weight on one leg and the other leg bent and at rest.

5. If a figure, such as the Kritios Boy, is described as standing in contrapposto, that figure is most likely standing

A. with its weight on both legs, stiffly, and with its hands clenched at its sides.
B. with its weight primarily on one leg and the other leg straight and stepping forward.
C. with both knees bent.
D. with its weight on one leg and the other leg bent and at rest.

The interior of a temple was restricted to priests and attendants; Greek worshippers did not gather inside the temple.

6. Sarah is taking a guided tour of one of the Greek temples. The guide says, "And inside the temple, where we're standing, is where the Greek congregation gathered to worship the god or goddess to whom this temple was dedicated. Animal sacrifices were commonly made outside the temple to placate the gods or in the hopes of receiving favors." Sarah sighs, disgusted with the guide. What error does she spot in the guide's presentation?

A. Temples were usually dedicated to several gods and goddesses rather than just one.
B. The interior of a temple was restricted to priests and attendants; Greek worshippers did not gather inside the temple.
C. Animal sacrifices were not made in Greek religion.
D. Greek gods were either mercurial or saturnine; a Greek was far more likely to hope to be left alone by the gods rather than ask them for any kind of favor.

The interior of a temple was restricted to priests and attendants; Greek worshippers did not gather inside the temple.

7. Two of the three Greek orders have bases to their columns. These orders are the

A. Doric and Ionic.
B. Ionic and Corinthian.
C. Black-figure and Corinthian.
D. Ionic and Red-figure.

It was a sacred precinct with many temples.

8. What was the function of the Acropolis in Athens?

A. It was a sacred precinct with many temples.
B. It was a park with views of the city and incoming ships to the harbor.
C. It was a large temple and one of the wonders of the ancient world.
D. It was a museum of many buildings and was full of statues that were emblematic of the late classical style.

C. Restrained but natural movement

9. Which concept, perfected during the high classical period, does the sculpture from the Parthenon exemplify?

A. Contrapposto
B. The canon of proportion
C. Restrained but natural movement
D. Foreshortening

D. All streets at right angles; a space at the center of town for the market

10. In Phillipe's town planning class, his mid-term project is to design a city. He decides to design it following Hippodamian town planning principles. This means his professor will expect to see two specific things. What are they?
A. The appearance of perfection in the look of the buildings; a decided Egyptian influence on the use and placement of public art
B. A town wall; a large space in the town dedicated to temples
C. All streets named following a particular pattern (i.e., letters of the alphabet, states); definite beginnings and ends to streets
D. All streets at right angles; a space at the center of town for the market

The platform the temple stands on and its simple enclosed room with porch design

The Temple of Portunus demonstrates influences from both the Greek and the Etruscan cultures. Which portions of the temple exhibit Etruscan influences?

A. The platform the temple stands on and its simple enclosed room with porch design
B. The columns around the building
C. The placement of the building in an urban area and the clearly defined entrance
D. The atrium in the center of the temple and the peristyle court

Etruscan atriums and Greek peristyle courts

2. Sean lives in a ranch home in Virginia, but he dreams of building a Roman-style courtyard. Which stylistic elements from other cultures should Sean study in order to most accurately construct his Roman courtyard?

A. Greek wall paintings and Etruscan statuary
B. Etruscan atriums and Greek peristyle courts
C. Etruscan columns and the Greek entryway definition
D. Greek shop dwellings and Etruscan interior ancestral shrines

Near a public gathering place within the city

3. Thomas wants to find a Roman temple in the small Italian town he's visiting, but he's left his guidebook back at the hotel and doesn't speak Italian. He knows that you've studied Roman art and architecture and asks for your help finding a temple. Where should you suggest Thomas begin his search?

A. In a field away from the main part of the city
B. On a hill near the edges of the city
C. Near a public gathering place within the city
D. Attached to an ancient Roman house

The degree of illusionism attempted

4. What forms the basis by which Roman wall painting is divided into four styles?

A. The kinds of paint used
B. The degree of illusionism attempted
C. The location of the paintings
D. The subjects of the paintings

The second style

5. You and Thomas are exploring Pompeii. You are inside a small room and see a window looking on the outdoors. When you move closer to the window, you realize that it's actually a wall painting showing a scene as though it were occurring beyond the wall. Given that Pompeii is in southern Italy and the painting is of a landscape, in which style is this wall painting?

A. The first style
B. The second style
C. The third style
D. The fourth style

No; the equestrian monument was an imperial Roman innovation meant to convey the ruler's power through his control of the horse.

6. Is it true that the equestrian monument to Marcus Aurelius is an example of a sculptural style borrowed from the Greeks? Why or why not?

A. Yes; the statue has many stylistic features in common with Greek statues from the high classical period.
B. Yes; the Greeks were the first to harness the sculptural power of a horse to the sculptural power of a leader riding triumphantly.
C. No; the Etruscans were the first to carve statues of horses and later added leaders riding them.
D. No; the equestrian monument was an imperial Roman innovation meant to convey the ruler's power through his control of the horse

The dome; its weight was greatly reduced because of the use of concrete.

7. Which aspect of the Pantheon was made possible through the use of concrete and why?

A. The dome; its weight was greatly reduced because of the use of concrete.
B. The placement; concrete could be made on site and fewer stones had to be brought in.
C. The arches; the rounded arch was only possible through concrete's ability to be formed into a variety of shapes.
D. The four bands of columns; the cost to build them of stone would have been prohibitive.

Doric.

8. The Colosseum has four bands of engaged columns. The bottom band of columns is best described as

A. Corinthian.
B. Corinthian with flat pilasters.
C. Ionic.
D. Doric.

The basilica

9. Which of the following Roman buildings had the greatest influence on Christian churches built during the fourth century C.E. and beyond?

A. The Colosseum
B. The Parthenon
C. The basilica
D. The Roman home

The classical style has ideal proportions, contrapposto, and drapery that reveals the body; the newer style shows squat figures with extremely simple drapery and little contrapposto visible.

10. Harry and Sally have just spent a week in Rome and are now touring Istanbul. While visiting the Arch of Constantine, Sally is able to pick out its two different styles of statuary. What defines the two different styles and makes them distinguishable from one another?

A. The classical style has simplified figures and drapery; the newer style shows idealized human figures, marked contrapposto, and drapery that reveals the body.
B. The classical style has ideal proportions, contrapposto, and drapery that reveals the body; the newer style shows squat figures with extremely simple drapery and little contrapposto visible.
C. The older style borrows from the Greeks with extremely fluid figures always caught in the middle of movement; the Constantine style shows static Christian saints with halos and hands raised in prayer.
D. The Roman style is focused on the body and eroticism; the Constantine style is focused on the idealization of the face and simplified robes.

.B. Early Christians were sometimes tolerated and sometimes persecuted by the Roman emperors, and so they did not have the resources to build large churches.

1. Why did Christians during the first through the early fourth century practice their religion in ordinary houses?

A. Roman emperors forbade building any type of church or temple during this time.
B. Early Christians were sometimes tolerated and sometimes persecuted by the Roman emperors, and so they did not have the resources to build large churches.
C. Early Christians poured their energy and resources into building catacombs rather than churches.
D. With the decline of the Roman empire, fewer and fewer architects could be found who knew how to build basilicas.

Some of the artistic qualities of art at the time are used in a simplified way.

2. How did experts determine that the artists who created catacomb paintings had very little training?

A. The paint is very faded, indicating that the artists didn't have access to the finest art supplies of the time.
B. The images are very direct with minimal use of symbolism.
C. Some of the artistic qualities of art at the time are used in a simplified way.
D. The art has a very hurried look, while art by trained artists looks more deliberate and polished.

A shepherd carrying a lamb

Which of the following common Christian images is based on a precedent set by Archaic Greek art?

A. A shepherd carrying a lamb
B. A bearded Jesus surrounded by children
C. A crucified Jesus on the cross
D. A statue of a saint with a slight smile

Northern European art

4. Which of the following types of art would be most likely to exclusively depict animal images?

A. Archaic Greek art
B. Roman art at the time of the republic
C. Early Christian iconography
D. Northern European art

A purse lid with colored enamel because the nomadic tribes needed art that was easily transportable.

5. Which of the following art forms is most likely in Celtic-Germanic art and why?

A. A baroque cathedral because the baroque form of architecture was developed to meet the cold-weather needs of the tribes.
B. A statue of an idealized human form because representing the human form was important in Celtic-Germanic art.
C. A purse lid with colored enamel because the nomadic tribes needed art that was easily transportable.
D. A silver crucifix because the spread of Christianity throughout the tribes was astonishingly quick.

The need for liturgical books

6. What did Christian missionaries bring to Ireland along with Christianity?

A. Smallpox
B. The need for liturgical books
C. The ability to carve stone into statues of idealized human shapes
D. The ability to create intricately whirled images on purse covers

The entrance was moved to one of the building's short ends to create a processional path.

7. Christian churches used a Roman basilica plan but modified it. Which of the following was a Christian modification of the Roman basilica plan?

A. The entrance was moved to one of the building's short ends to create a processional path.
B. The entrance was moved to one of the building's long ends to heighten the effect of entering the church.
C. An atrium was added to the middle of the building.
D. Marble columns were added to the outside and inside of the building.

A central-plan church

8. Which of the following types of church is most likely to have a dome?

A. A Romanesque cathedral
B. An early Christian church
C. A central-plan church
D. A basilica-plan church

Roman and Frank decorative and artistic traditions.

9. Art during Charlemagne's reign brought together elements of

A. Roman and Greek sculptural traditions.
B. Greek and Frank decorative traditions.
C. Frank and Celtic artistic traditions.
D. Roman and Frank decorative and artistic traditions.

No; his recognition of Christianity led to the building of large churches and monasteries throughout his empire.

10. Is it true that, due to his Frankish background, Charlemagne was not particularly interested in architecture? Why or why not?

A. Yes; his was the culture of the nomad, although he was generally supportive of Christianity.
B. Yes; his empire was marked by violent rebellions that absorbed all of his time.
C. No; his recognition of Christianity led to the building of large churches and monasteries throughout his empire.
D. No; his idea of architecture was in designing large tents with long poles lashed together that later led to the bays in medieval churches

In smaller chapels extending from the apse and transept

1. In a pilgrimage church, where were the relics kept?

A. At the front of the church before the altar
B. In the priest's study
C. Underneath the church in a special room designed for that purpose
D. In smaller chapels extending from the apse and transept

Ribbed vaulting

2. Which of the following is not a defining feature of a Romanesque church?

A. Rounded arches
B. Ribbed vaulting
C. Relatively dark interiors
D. Thick buttressing

A sculpture depicting Christ at the end of time

3. Warren is preparing to visit a Romanesque church in a small town in France. He's not interested in the architecture so much as the sculptures. When he first arrives, he heads to the main doorway. What should Warren expect to see in the tympanum?

A. A sculpture depicting Christ at the end of time.
B. A painting of the Madonna with child
C. Elegant sculptures in the idealized Greek style.
D. Animal imagery carved in stone and wood

They are stretched or compressed in order to fit an available space.

4. One of the most interesting aspects of Romanesque sculpture is the way that the figures are portrayed. What makes them stand apart from other types of sculptures?

A. Their expressions are all individual and differ from one another.
B. They exhibit a Romanesque sway
C. They are stretched or compressed in order to fit an available space.
D. They are extremely simplistically portrayed

The sharp angularity of the bodies and the inventiveness of the scene

5. Warren has been searching for examples of Gislebertus's style. At last he thinks he's found a tympanum sculpture that he believes might be by Gislebertus. What aspect of the sculpture specifically marks it as Gislebertus's?

A. The subject matter-Gislebertus was most interested in sculpting Last Judgment scenes
B. The change in the figures from short and squat to tall and thin
C. The flowing drapery that pools on the floor and the dark eyes
D. The sharp angularity of the bodies and the inventiveness of the scene

rounded to pointed arches

6. A major architectural change from Romanesque churches to Gothic churches is the change from

A. rounded to pointed arches.
B. pointed to rounded arches
C. no windows to walls that are all window.
D. stained glass windows to clear glass windows

It allows for more windows, as weight is directed to particular points with columns.

7. What advantage does ribbed vaulting give a building?

A. It allows for a more angled look to the building in keeping with mathematical ideals.
B. It allows for more windows, as weight is directed to particular points with columns.
C. It allows for more chapels to be built around the building in the same central footprint.
D. It allows for tympanum sculpture to move a little, demonstrating the Gothic sway.

He was interested in a first-century Christian writer who described God as light.

8. Why was Abbot Suger interested in bringing more light into the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis?

A. He was tired of performing mass in a dark cathedral.
B. He wanted the pilgrims to be able to see the reliquaries better.
C. He was interested in a first-century Christian writer who described God as light.
D. He wanted as many pointed arches as possible in his church because the point of the arch pointed toward God.

The stained glass in the windows reduced the amount of light coming into the space

9. What aspect of Saint-Denis actually worked against Abbot Suger's desire to bring more light into the church?

A. The heavy stone required had to be thickened in order to support the roof, which meant that the windows were further away from the interior.
B. The pointed arches meant that the weight pushed downward, which made it hard to build the church roof as high as he wanted it
C. The ribbed vaulting meant that fewer windows could be built into the walls
D. The stained glass in the windows reduced the amount of light coming into the space.

Gothic sway was a more S-shaped pose with one hip thrust outward.

10. How does Gothic sway differ from the contrapposto stance common in Greek and Roman sculptures?

A. Gothic sway was a more S-shaped pose with one hip thrust outward.
B. Gothic sway was a less steady pose, causing sculptures to move on their pedestals.
C. Contrapposto was a more elegant look with flowing drapery hiding the body.
D. Contrapposto was a more stiff, artificial look than Gothic sway.

A. Some Italian Gothic churches have pointed arches and ribbed vaults in common with French Gothic churches. Flying buttresses and stained glass are rare.

1. Which elements of French Gothic churches did some Italian Gothic churches keep? Which elements were used more rarely?

A. Some Italian Gothic churches have pointed arches and ribbed vaults in common with French Gothic churches. Flying buttresses and stained glass are rare.
B. Some Italian Gothic churches have rounded arches and barrel vaults in common with French Gothic churches. Frescoes and sculpture are rare.
C. Some Italian Gothic churches have frescoes and elaborate portal sculptures in common with French Gothic churches. Flying buttresses and pointed arches are rare.
D. Some Italian Gothic churches have both barrel and ribbed vaults in common with French Gothic churches. Frescoes and stained glass are rare.

Byzantine style

2. The Gothic style was only one of the choices available to architects in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Which earlier style was still strong in Sicily and northern Italy?

A. A local variation of Romanesque style
B. Byzantine style.
C. Early Christian basilica style.
D. Classical style.

The pose is traditionally Byzantine, as is the shape of the face. The bodies are rounder, however, with flowing folds of cloth.

3. Compare and contrast Duccio di Buoninsegna's Maestà to Byzantine works. What is similar? What is different?

A. The gilding is like Byzantine works, as is the size of the altarpiece. The subject matter is different however; most Byzantine art was of landscapes or traditional subjects.
B. The painting technique is a traditional Byzantine one with tempera paint. The faces of the figures surrounding the Madonna are all visible, which is unlike most Byzantine art.
C. The layout is traditionally Byzantine, with the Madonna seated and holding the child on her lap. The figures around her are much more natural-looking and are standing in contrapposto.
D. The pose is traditionally Byzantine, as is the shape of the face. The bodies are rounder, however, with flowing folds of cloth.

the paint dries quickly.

4. Tempera painting results in an opaque, richly colored paint surface, but its primary disadvantage is that

A. fine detail is impossible to achieve.
B. the paint dries quickly.
C. the paint cannot be used on wood surfaces.
D. certain effects, such as soft figures, cannot be achieved.

Egg yolk

5. What does tempera use as its medium?

A. Linseed oil
B. Water
C. Egg yolk
D. Wet plaster

He was a master storyteller, emphasizing gestures and facial expressions.

6. What set Giotto di Bondone apart from other artists of the same time period?

A. He was a master storyteller, emphasizing gestures and facial expressions.
B. He followed Byzantine rules of composition exactly.
C. He painted non-religious subjects almost exclusively.
D. He always painted figures stacked and facing forward so their faces were visible.

By having everything in the painting, even the hillside, "point" toward Christ

7. Giotto's Lamentation emphasizes the dead Christ. How did Giotto emphasize the body of the Christ in the artwork?

A. By ensuring that the body was unblocked and completely visible to the viewer
B. By painting a halo on Christ alone but leaving the other figures unadorned
C. By gilding Christ's body, causing it to stand out from the more somber colors
D. By having everything in the painting, even the hillside, "point" toward Christ

Perspective

8. Giotto's work presaged the development of which artistic element in the next century?

A. Contrapposto
B. Perspective
C. Tempera paint
D. Fresco

With broad, fast brush strokes while the plaster is still wet

9. When painting in buon fresco, how is the paint applied?

A. With small, slow brush strokes while the plaster is still wet.
B. With long, fluid brush strokes at different stages in the plaster drying process
C. With broad, fast brush strokes while the plaster is still wet .
D. With short, choppy brush stokes at different stages in the plaster drying process

Giotto's paintings.

10. If you were flipping quickly through postcards of different medieval artworks a friend had seen in Italy and came across robust figures with almost conical shapes, you might assume that these works were

A. Giotto's paintings.
B. Romanesque art
C. Archaic Greek art
D. Duccio di Buoninsegna's paintings.

Filippo Brunelleschi; the work was unnamed and has since disappeared

Who was the first to demonstrate linear perspective in a painting, and what was the name of the painting?
Answer:
A. Masaccio; Trinity with the Virgin, Saint John the Evangelist, and Donors
B. Masaccio; Tribute Money
C. Andrea Mantegna; Frescoes in the Camera Picta
Filippo Brunelleschi; the work was unnamed and has since disappeared

They're of equal sizes and arranged above one another.

: In what way are the windows of Renaissance palaces different from those of medieval palaces?
Answer:
They're usually made of clear glass rather than of the stained glass.
They're of different sizes and placed wherever someone needed a window.
They're of equal sizes and arranged above one another.
D. They're composed of pointed, not rounded, arches.

Gothic

Brunelleschi figured out how to solve the problem of the Florence Cathedral dome by looking at what type of structural system?
Answer:
Archaic Greek
B. Byzantine
C. Romanesque
Gothic

Venus exists in a space with movement (her hair is fluttering delicately around her). The Madonna is in a very static environment with no movement.

Comparing Duccio's Maestà (early 1300s) with Sandro Botticelli's Birth of Venus (late 1400s), it is clear how many changes in painting came about in less than two hundred years. What's one stylistic difference you see in Botticelli's Venus compared with Duccio's Madonna?
Answer:
Venus exists in a space with movement (her hair is fluttering delicately around her). The Madonna is in a very static environment with no movement.
Venus and the Madonna are both in unrealistic spaces (Venus is standing on a giant shell; the Madonna is almost twice as tall as all of the people around her). However, Venus looks more aware of her surroundings.
Venus is standing in the stiff, Archaic Greek style of sculpture. The Madonna is more graceful in her seated pose.
D. Venus is clearly the focus of the painting. The Madonna is off to the side and not as visible as Christ, who is the focus.

Have them converge on a single vanishing point.

Sven is painting a picture of several buildings around the square at his college and is trying to achieve linear perspective. His teacher tells him to pay attention to the orthogonals. What should Sven do with the orthogonals in order to achieve the desired perspective?

A. Blur them so that they will appear to be farther away from the viewer.
B. Emphasize them so that they are the primary object seen by the viewer.
C. Have them converge on a single vanishing point.
D. Aim them high so the viewer looks down at the scene.

The left side, where the trees and mountains are hazy

When looking at Masaccio's Tribute Money, it's easy to see the atmospheric perspective being used. Which part of the painting shows the effect of the atmospheric perspective?

A. The left side, where the trees and mountains are hazy
B. The center, at Christ's head, where all the lines in the painting converge
C. The right side, where the two figures are clasping hands and one is holding a walking stick
D. The top right of the painting, where the viewer can see the partially cut-off windows of the building

His contrapposto pose

When you look at Donatello's David, what is one classical aspect of the statue that you can't help but notice?

A. His hat
B. His contrapposto pose
C. The helmet from Goliath's head that David has his foot on
D. The erotic quality of the work

No one could figure out how to support such a huge structure set so high above the ground.

The dream of the Florence Cathedral planners was for a huge dome that was higher above the ground than the dome of the Pantheon in Rome, but there were two problems with that dream. What was one of them?

A. No one could figure out how to support such a huge structure set so high above the ground.
B. The recipe for concrete had been lost with the fall of the Roman empire, and concrete was the only material light enough to use in the structure.
C. No one could figure out how to build scaffolding in a place that was high enough to reach the proposed height.
D. The pool of talented workers who were capable of doing the work was too small for the dome size proposed.

Florence; Donatello

The Medicis were central to the history of which of the following cities and were well known for supporting which of the following artists?

A. Milan; Lorenzo the Magnificent
B. Florence; Donatello
C. Rome; Praxiteles
D. Venice; Gislebertus

showed a story clearly, without clutter, and with variety enough to keep it interesting.

Leon Battista Alberti, who wrote On Painting, would most likely have enjoyed a painting that

A. showed a thorough understanding of classical principles-for example, showing the most important person in the painting as the largest figure.
B. was painted on a wall, as he was a leading proponent of frescoes.
C. showed a story clearly, without clutter, and with variety enough to keep it interesting.
D. was of a religious subject, as he was also a leading cardinal in the church.

The careful attention to the details of the peasants' lives

1. What marks the February page of the Très Riches Heures as demonstrating the international style?

A. The Gothic sway of the standing figures.
B. The way the figures have been altered to fit into the spaces allotted to them
C. The careful attention to the details of the peasants' lives
D. The fact that animals are in the scene as well as people and landscape details

It's set high in the painting so that you can see far into the distance and, thus, every detail.

2. In the international style, the horizon line is set differently than in a painting like Giotto's Lamentation. Where is it set and why?

A. It's set high in the painting so that you can see far into the distance and, thus, every detail.
B. It's set in the middle of the painting so that objects above it and below it are treated equally.
C. It's set just below the middle of the painting so the viewer is reminded that it's the world above and not the world below (Earth) that's important.
D. It's set low in the painting so that the sky fills the painting, giving the artist a chance to show off his ability to paint clouds.

. The open window beside him

3. In the Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife Giovanna Cenami, what details about the man suggest that he has a life outside the home?

A. The shoes tucked beneath the chair in the back
B. The open window beside him
C. The bed he is standing in front of
D. The dressing gown he wears

Van Eyck and another man, seen in the mirror

4. In the Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife Giovanna Cenami, who else is in the picture with Giovanni and Giovanna?

A. Their child, seen lying on the bed
B. A maid, seen cleaning in the back corner of the room
C. Their cat, shown in front of them
D. Van Eyck and another man, seen in the mirror

It is a reminder of the wife's role inside the home.

5. A notable feature of northern Renaissance art was its use of symbolism. What is the most likely symbolism of the broom in the Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife Giovanna Cenami?

A. It's a reminder that cleanliness is next to godliness.
B. It symbolizes Arnolfini's role as the man sent by his Italian relatives to "clean up" their business in Flanders.
C. It is a reminder of the wife's role inside the home.
D. It's a Flemish broom next to an Italian religious statue, raising the interesting possibility that the wife was actually Flemish and not Italian.

The folds were sharply triangular.

6. Another characteristic of northern artists was their attention to elaborate drapery folds. Robert Campin painted the robes in the Mérode Altarpiece, and they were distinctively his. What made them so?

A. The folds were sharply triangular.
B. The folds in the angel's robes formed Greek letters spelling his name.
C. The folds in the angel's robes had no shadows.
D. The folds in Mary's robe were symmetrical.

As being a part of nature like the trees beside them and the animals behind them

7. Pieter Bruegel the Elder was not so much interested in elaborate drapery folds as in nature. How might we view the silhouetted humans in Hunters in the Snow?

A. As wealthy dominators of nature with their dogs and their guns prominently displayed
B. As being a part of nature like the trees beside them and the animals behind them
C. As being controlled by the unseen forces of nature with their bundled-up clothes
D. As being the only unnatural elements in the landscape

Woodcuts, because the block allows you to make lots of impressions of a single image.

8. If you were an artist in the sixteenth century and wanted to create an image that you could sell hundreds or even thousands of times, which technique might you use?

A. Oil paint, because it lasts for so long.
B. Tempera, because its role in classical art would appeal to the most people.
C. Woodcuts, because the block allows you to make lots of impressions of a single image.
D. Engravings, because the metal in the plates lasts longer than wood.

He shows us his interest in Italian Renaissance art with Adam's body nude and in ideal proportions.

9. What does Albrecht Dürer show us in his Adam and Eve print? How does he do this?

A. He shows us his travels with the image clearly placed in a particular town in northern Italy.
B. He shows us his risk-taking ability; he took a copper engraving and marketed it to the masses.
C. He shows us his ability to get an enormous amount of detail in just the few lines allowed in a woodcut print.
D. He shows us his interest in Italian Renaissance art with Adam's body nude and in ideal proportions.

Protestants accepted only smaller religious images and, in many cases, destroyed larger-scale religious images.

10. What was the difference between Catholic approaches to art and Protestant approaches to art during the Reformation?

A. Catholics continued to demand religious subjects only, and art that depicted the everyday lives of ordinary people was, in many cases, destroyed.
B. Protestants accepted only smaller religious images and, in many cases, destroyed larger-scale religious images.
C. Catholics spent much less on art than they had previously for fear of attracting the attention of Protestant mobs.
D. Protestants commissioned all-new "modern" altarpieces and enormous works of art for their churches; Catholics clung stubbornly to the idea that the old styles of art were best.

Both forms share an ease and monumentality. However, Venetian works of art are distinguished by their lyric sensuality.

1. Compare and contrast Venetian art of the sixteenth century with High Renaissance art. What aspects are the same? What aspects are different?

A. Both forms share an ease and monumentality. However, Venetian works of art are distinguished by their lyric sensuality.
B. Both forms revel in the unclothed human figure. However, Venetian art was primarily religious, and High Renaissance art distinguished itself with Greek and Roman mythology.
C. Both forms were clearly influenced by the northern Renaissance crisp attention to detail. However, Venetian art softened the edges of the detail. .
D. Both forms wanted to go beyond nature, with High Renaissance works showing graceful and powerful figures and Venetian works showing hyper-sensuous and powerful female figures. However, High Renaissance artists are less well known today than Venetian artists such as Titian.

C. It holds the viewer's interest with the level of detail. Each apostle has a different expression and gesture; for example, Judas is revealed as the betrayer by the way he leans away from Christ

2. How does Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper hold the viewer's interest?

A. It holds the viewer's interest with the clarity of the figures. The paint has held up remarkably well despite Leonardo having tried a new painting technique.
B. It holds the viewer's interest with the guessing game that he creates by having each apostle painted to look like a different artist who was a friend to him-Michelangelo, Raphael, Titian, and so forth.
C. It holds the viewer's interest with the level of detail. Each apostle has a different expression and gesture; for example, Judas is revealed as the betrayer by the way he leans away from Christ.
D. It holds the viewer's interest with the composition, which is in an upside-down pyramid shape.

B. Powerful, nude male figures

3. Michelangelo was quite consistent, at least in his early works, with his portrayal of human bodies. What was he most famous for in both David and the Sistine chapel ceiling?

A. Telling a story in just a few gestures
B. Powerful, nude male figures
C. His speed-both remarkable works of art were completed in less than two months
D. His ability to suggest tensions between the ideal and the real

D. A pyramid

4. Leonardo da Vinci's method of structuring his paintings (the Mona Lisa, for instance) was to use what shape?

A. A square
B. A perfect circle
C. An oval
D. A pyramid

Balance and harmony; with the symmetry of the painting, as seen in the dome above the philosophers, and the general balance of colors

5. What did Raphael strive to display above all else in his work? How is this goal carried out in the School of Athens?

A. Balance and harmony; with the symmetry of the painting, as seen in the dome above the philosophers, and the general balance of colors
B. Power; with the strong male figures bursting with vitality and almost bursting out of their clothes
C. Beauty; with the chorus of lovely women who stand at the upper left admiring the philosophers
D. Classical ideals; with the way that all of the standing figures are standing in contrapposto ..

B. It was difficult to use; there was no clear location for the altar, and it did not accommodate crowds well

6. St. Peter's was redesigned in the 1500s. What was the central concern with the first design?

A. It was too similar to the old basilica, and Pope Julius II wanted something grander to commemorate himself.
B. It was difficult to use; there was no clear location for the altar, and it did not accommodate crowds well.
C. It was so large that it did not adequately convey the comfort of the church and merely conveyed its glory.
D. The acoustics were terrible; the pope could not make himself heard to the crowds when celebrating masses.

Mosaics; the intense color encouraged artists to seek out ways of creating brilliantly colored paintings.

7. What type of Byzantine art had the greatest influence in Venice and why?

A. Small sea paintings; the subject matter encouraged artists to paint landscapes without people in them.
B. Oil paintings; artists learned of a new medium other than tempera. .
C. Mosaics; the intense color encouraged artists to seek out ways of creating brilliantly colored paintings.
D. Sculpture; artists tried to recapture the sensuality of Byzantine sculptures..

A typical Giorgione painting would be mysterious and difficult to interpret definitively but sensuous and softly focused. A typical Titian painting would be of a glamorous and sensuous nude woman but, like Giorgione, with some blurring of the edges.

8. Compare and contrast a typical Giorgione painting with a typical Titian one. What were the artists' outstanding characteristics?

A. A typical Giorgione painting would be mysterious and difficult to interpret definitively but sensuous and softly focused. A typical Titian painting would be of a glamorous and sensuous nude woman but, like Giorgione, with some blurring of the edges.
B. A typical Giorgione painting would depict a powerful nude with some blurring of the edges as was typical in Venetian art. A typical Titian painting would be of a religious subject with sturdy and prim women. .
C. A typical Giorgione painting would be of a landscape with small figures working busily in it. The amount of detail would be the outstanding characteristic. A typical Titian painting would be of a scene from ancient Rome with beautifully rendered buildings of principal importance. -
D. A typical Giorgione painting would be painted on gold leaf with luxurious details, such as silk and velvet, included in the image. The overall feel would be of great luxury. A typical Titian painting would be more austere with a greater focus on each detail and each detail being presented crisply. .

Applying classical forms to the façade of a basilican church

9. Antonio Palladio solved a difficult architectural problem-what was it?

A. Creating livable spaces within large Roman houses
B. Recreating Roman concrete, the secret of which had been lost for centuries
C. Supporting the planned dome for St. Peter's ..
D. Applying classical forms to the façade of a basilican church

B. More directly expressive of religious meaning with more of an emotional impact

10. After the Reformation, the Catholic church engaged in the Counter-Reformation, and art began to shift toward which of the following?

A. Less emotional and more intellectual art
B. More directly expressive of religious meaning with more of an emotional impact
C. More otherworldly art with exaggerated proportions as seemed necessary to fit into the space
D. More sensual and less crisp images with softer edges

. Because, especially during the Counter-Reformation, the Catholic church wanted clear portrayals of acceptable doctrine to be available to the faithful.

1. Why in the late sixteenth century did critics of mannerism begin to rethink mannerists' portrayals of religious subjects?

A. Because, especially during the Counter-Reformation, the Catholic church wanted clear portrayals of acceptable doctrine to be available to the faithful.
B. Because the Catholic church didn't like the way mannerists twisted religious symbolism to suit their own ends-using their friends and fellow artists as subjects, for instance.
C. Because mannerists had gone too far into a naturalist way of painting with too much realism and not enough that was idealized.
D. Because mannerists were not aggressive enough in marketing their work to the newly rising-and increasingly irreligious-middle classes of the era.

The Catholic church was still the primary patron of artists in Italy, and much of the magnificent art from that period is seen in St. Peter's. In Holland, the growing middle class bought art, and artists sold art on the open market, so still lifes and landscape paintings were popular.

2. Compare and contrast Catholic Italy and its patronage of artists versus Protestant Holland and its patronage of artists during the Baroque period.

A. The Catholic church was still the primary patron of artists in Italy, and much of the magnificent art from that period is seen in St. Peter's. In Holland, the growing middle class bought art, and artists sold art on the open market, so still lifes and landscape paintings were popular.
B. In Catholic Italy patrons ranged widely, from institutions, such as the church and governments, to individuals, such as cardinals and many "common" people. On the other hand, many subjects for art were banned or thought unworthy, such as family portraits and landscapes without people in them. In Protestant Holland, the Protestant church was the primary patron for art and that art was intended for God's eyes, not sinful man's. The art was consequently darker and very symmetrical-perfection was a major goal for these artists.
C. Artists remained under the thumb of their patrons as they always had in Catholic Italy, and the primary patrons remained the Medicis, who continued to demand overtly romanticized and religious art, preferably with a portrait of a family member in the background. In Protestant Holland, artists were much freer to paint whatever they wanted to because there was no system of patronage. On the other hand, artists were much less respected in Holland, and very few of them were able to earn a living. .
D. Patrons in Catholic Italy looked on art as a chance for immortality, so there were many more portraits done of solid middle-class citizens. In Protestant Holland, society frowned on personal portraits being made, and so there were still lifes and landscapes made for various institutions that commissioned them.

C. Prior to the 1500s, artists learned by being apprenticed to other artists. With the increased respect that artists received, and in part as a reaction to modernism, Miguel may have a chance to go to an academy where he can learn the ideas behind art as well as have studio art instruction.

3. Miquel wishes to learn to paint. He lives in the late sixteenth century in Bologna. Had he lived in the late fifteenth century, how would he have learned? In these modern times, how will Miguel probably learn to paint? What explains this change?

A. In the 1400s, art was a family affair, so if your father painted or sculpted, you too could learn to paint or sculpt. With the growth of the middle class and the increased demand for art, an apprenticeship program was started by the Catholic church in the 1500s, so Miguel will be able to learn that way.
B. In the late fifteenth century, artists learned by attending classes run by the Catholic church, which taught the appropriate subjects for painting and certain drawing skills, and then they were sent out on their own to figure out the rest. Because of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation, these classes were disbanded in some countries and increased in others. Since Miguel is in Italy, a Catholic country, he will be able to learn at one of the finest of these academies and perhaps funneled to Rome to learn from the masters who are painting for St. Peter's.
C. Prior to the 1500s, artists learned by being apprenticed to other artists. With the increased respect that artists received, and in part as a reaction to modernism, Miguel may have a chance to go to an academy where he can learn the ideas behind art as well as have studio art instruction.
D. Prior to 1532, artists apprenticed themselves to local painters. In 1532, Pope Clement VII began a school for artists at the Vatican primarily to build a pool of capable artists for working on St. Peter's.

B. To teach students to draw from nature and learn more about literature, science, and art theory

4. What was the primary goal of the Carracci academy?

A. To prepare students to work on St. Peter's and other Catholic churches throughout Europe
B. To teach students to draw from nature and learn more about literature, science, and art theory
C. To serve as a training center for the Counter-Reformation art rules that were established at the Council of Trent
D. To serve as a counter-balance to the hyperrealistic style of the Baroque artists

The use of light and dark in Caravaggio's painting makes the figures pop off of the canvas. Pontormo's figures appear lit from the same place with little shadow in the painting.

5. Compare Caravaggio's Calling of St. Matthew with Pontormo's Entombment, focusing on the figures in the paintings.

A. The figures in both paintings are painted carefully so that they face the viewer.
B. Caravaggio's figures are all true to life, whereas Pontormo's figures are softened with sfumato. .
C. The color palette used for both sets of figures is the same.
D. The use of light and dark in Caravaggio's painting makes the figures pop off of the canvas. Pontormo's figures appear lit from the same place with little shadow in the painting.

A. Tension; concentrated calm

6. Compare Bernini's David to Michelangelo's. Which emotions are suggested by each statue, respectively?

A. Tension; concentrated calm
B. Sympathy; anger
C. Exuberance; worry
D. Relief; anticipation

D. Active, because in both cases the action demonstrated is not completed, and the viewer completes the action in his or her mind

7. Compare Bernini's David to The Raising of the Cross by Peter Paul Rubens. Are the works static or active?

A. Static, because they are frozen in time
B. Static, because in both cases the main character is at rest and peaceful
C. Active, because both artists use Gothic sway, and so both works literally sway
D. Active, because in both cases the action demonstrated is not completed, and the viewer completes the action in his or her mind

Etching allows an artist to draw quickly and freely.

8. What does the technique of etching allow an artist to do that engraving does not?

A. Etching allows an artist to add color to a print.
B. Etching allows an artist to create more copies of a single work because you can print more from an etched plate than from an engraved plate..
C. Etching allows an artist to draw quickly and freely.
D. Etching allows an artist to show off his or her skills with the tools used to cut deeply into metal. .

B. Rembrandt

9. If you were the head of a firefighters' organization in Holland in the 1600s, which of the following artists would have been your first choice to paint an extremely dramatic group portrait?

A. Frans Hals
B. Rembrandt
C. Jan Vermeer
D. Velazquez

A. Because the emphasis of the design of the Palais de Versailles was the power and centrality of Louis XIV.

10. Why do the most important axis in the park and the three main roads of the town converge at Louis XIV's bedroom in the center of the Palais de Versailles?

A. Because the emphasis of the design of the Palais de Versailles was the power and centrality of Louis XIV.
B. It was coincidence; Versailles was built on the ruins of a former palace and the roads had been built centuries before.
C. Because Louis XIV ruled during a time of great turmoil in France, and he needed messengers to be able to get to him quickly and to be able to get away if revolution came.
D. It was a secret Mason plot to suggest that Louis XIV was the center of the world.

two French words meaning "shell" and "pebble."

1. The term rococo comes from

A. two French words meaning "erotic" and "light-hearted." .
B. two French words meaning "shell" and "pebble." .
C. an Italian word meaning "French painter."
D. an Italian word meaning "non-religious art."

A. From the king of France to wealthy aristocrats, many of them women

2. A shift in patronage helped lead to the rococo style being adopted in France. What was this shift in patronage?

A. From the king of France to wealthy aristocrats, many of them women
B. From the Catholic church in France to the Protestant middle class
C. From the aristocrats to the Huguenots
D. From the seat of the Catholic church in Rome to the outlying cities, such as Paris and Antwerp

Versailles had massive classical pilasters, but the Salon de la Princess has no such strong vertical accents.

3. Contrast baroque architecture, as seen in Versailles, with the rococo style of architecture, as seen in the Salon de la Princess. What is a major difference between the two?

A. Versailles had delicate stonework and a great deal of ornamentation. The Salone de la Princess is large with heavy stonework, alleviated by the choice of small paintings and whitewashed walls and ceiling. .
B. Versailles had massive rooms with little ornamentation; the Salon de la Princess was much smaller-about the size of a modern living room.
C. Versailles had massive classical pilasters, but the Salon de la Princess has no such strong vertical accents. .
D. Versailles was clearly designed and planned; the Salon de la Princess looks as if it was thrown together hastily.

B. They have similar color schemes with pastels, corals, turquoises, and golds, and the figures in the paintings are similarly light and delicate.

4. Jean-Antoine Watteau's work Pilgrimage to Cythera and Jean-Honoré Fragonard's work The Progress of Love are similar to one another in what elements?

A. They depict the same subject, love, but it's worth noting that The Progress of Love has a more cynical view with the male in the painting chasing the female but easily distracted by other women.
B. They have similar color schemes with pastels, corals, turquoises, and golds, and the figures in the paintings are similarly light and delicate.
C. They are both large paintings with the figures nearly life-sized.
D. They were both painted during a time of great political turmoil in France, and the idealized visions of the paintings were wistful recollections of more innocent days.

Both painters painted women with delicate heads, hands, and feet. However, Fragonard's women tend to be flirtatious, and Chardin's women tend to be involved in domestic tasks.

5. What is a similarity between Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin's women and Fragonard's women? What is a difference?

A. Both painters painted women with a few heavy brushstrokes; however, they devoted much more time to the folds of the clothes that these women wore. Chardin painted the women semi-dressed, and Fragonard always painted his women fully and properly clothed.
B. Both painters idealized women and they were never shown as less than perfect Madonna types. However, Fragonard's women were typically younger and shown shy in the presence of suitors. Chardin's women tended to be more forward in their actions and dress.
C. Both painters painted their women almost exclusively in domestic scenes. However, Fragonard's women were aristocratic and involved in typically aristocratic pursuits-sewing, playing with their dogs-and Chardin's women tended to be peasants, working on the farm or warming themselves by the fire. .
D. Both painters painted women with delicate heads, hands, and feet. However, Fragonard's women tend to be flirtatious, and Chardin's women tend to be involved in domestic tasks. .

C. Fête galante; it was neither high-minded enough to be a history painting nor commonplace enough to be a genre painting.

6. When Watteau submitted his demonstration piece to the French Royal Academy, the Academy had no idea how to label it and so created a new category for it. What was this category called and what made Watteau's piece difficult to categorize?

A. History painting; it did not reference a specific biblical story and required a deep knowledge of religious history to decipher.
B. Paysage painting; it included both people and scenery and, until then, paintings had been about one or the other.
C. Fête galante; it was neither high-minded enough to be a history painting nor commonplace enough to be a genre painting.
D. Aristocratique painting; it was neither religious nor about peasants, neither a portrait nor exactly a landscape

overtly erotic.

7. Compared with Watteau and Chardin, Fragonard's paintings were much more

A. overtly erotic. -
B. Catholic in their religious symbolism.
C. glowing and light-hearted.
D. descriptive of peasant life as it was actually lived. .

In Marriage, the young couple turns away from one another; the flirtatiousness and longing of Pilgrimage has been replaced with boredom and the legal wranglings of an aristocratic marriage

8. When the rococo style came to England, William Hogarth used it in a particular way. Compare Marriage à la Mode with The Pilgrimage to Cythera. What is a major difference between the young couples in each painting?

A. In Marriage, the young couple races through the landscaped gardens of a castle. In Pilgrimage, a young couple is in a wilder environment, which apparently encourages a slightly more dissolute manner with one another.
B. In Marriage, the young couple turns away from one another; the flirtatiousness and longing of Pilgrimage has been replaced with boredom and the legal wranglings of an aristocratic marriage. .
C. In Marriage, the level of detail is quite specific, and the artist is seemingly more concerned with the couple's surroundings than with the couple themselves; the viewer has a difficult time reading their emotions. In Pilgrimage, the surroundings are painted without much detail-the better to focus on the couples and their amorous intentions. .
D. In Marriage, the couple is painted in a far stouter, heartier manner than Pilgrimage's delicate floating aristocrats, and the viewer is left to assume that their marriage will be far sturdier than any that comes out of the gossamer-like Pilgrimage setting.

He was interested in satirizing it for the lack of morality in British aristocratic society.

9. Hogarth in particular was interested in what aspect of the rococo style?

A. He was interested in the lightness that the rococo artists could convey with their delicate brushstrokes..
B. He was interested in its typical brushstrokes and the color palette..
C. He was interested in satirizing it for the lack of morality in British aristocratic society.
D. He was interested in the erotic element of the style. .

He was primarily interested in the brushstrokes and the color palette.

10. Thomas Gainsborough used which aspect(s) of rococo in his paintings?

A. He was interested in the lightness that the rococo artists could convey with their delicate brushstrokes. .
B. He was primarily interested in the brushstrokes and the color palette.
C. He was interested in satirizing it for the lack of morality in British aristocratic society..
D. He was interested in the erotic element of the style. .

C. Both were reactions to the frivolity and insincerity of rococo; however, neoclassicism celebrated principles and power, and romanticism celebrated freedom and individuality.

1. What is a similarity between neoclassicism and romanticism, and what is a difference?

A. Both began in France and spread from there to the rest of Europe. Neoclassicism reached its zenith in Germany, and romanticism hit its high in England.
B. Both celebrated Catholic religious subjects. Neoclassicism did it by using Greek and Roman rules about perfection in art, and romanticism did it by using Baroque principles.
C. Both were reactions to the frivolity and insincerity of rococo; however, neoclassicism celebrated principles and power, and romanticism celebrated freedom and individuality.
D. Both celebrated the human form. Neoclassicism was most interested in the "technical" details of the muscles and sinews; romanticism was most interested in the softer aspects of the body, such as skin and hair.

Jacques-Louis David

2. Which of the following artists painted Oath of the Horatii, which shows some of the ideals of neoclassicism?

A. Jacques-Louis David
B. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres .
C. Antonio Canova .
D. John Singleton Copley .

Neoclassical, because the statue expresses order

3. Of which style is Cupid and Psyche, the sculpture by Canova, a great example? Why?

A. Neoclassical, because the statue expresses order .
B. Romanticism, because the statue expresses love and romantic feelings.
C. Classical, because the figures are formed perfectly
D. Baroque, because it is a monumental work

A portrait that was ideal and beautiful and beyond an accurate portrayal of the subject

4. Which of the following choices would the Royal Academy in London have appreciated more?

A. A painting of a grand historical subject from the Roman era
B. A portrait that was ideal and beautiful and beyond an accurate portrayal of the subject .
C. A baroque sculpture that loomed high above the viewer
D. A simple landscape.

D. Reynolds painted with strength, moody color, and loose brushwork. Copley painted with great detail and clarity.

5. Sir Joshua Reynolds and John Singleton Copley both painted portraits, but they had different goals when painting. How did Reynolds paint a portrait? How did Copley?

A. Reynolds painted with lots of lines, so you could almost see the drawings underneath the paint. Copley painted with lots of soft edges and was interested in making his subjects look better than they probably did in real life.
B. Reynolds painted with vivid colors and delicate brushstrokes. Copley painted with moody color and so smoothly that you almost cannot see brushstrokes at all.
C. Reynolds painted with very distinct lines and edges, and Copley painted his portraits with broad, almost slapdash brushstrokes.
D. Reynolds painted with strength, moody color, and loose brushwork. Copley painted with great detail and clarity.

Palladio from the Renaissance

6. Neoclassical buildings in the eighteenth century tended to draw on the designs by which architect from what time period?

A. Michelangelo from classical Rome.
B. Jefferson from the eighteenth century
C. Palladio from the Renaissance.
D. Doric from classical Greece .

B. Rococo and romanticism

7. Several artists worked in different styles during their careers. Francisco Goya y Lucientes, for instance, worked in two distinctly different styles. Which styles were they?

A. Rococo and neoclassicism
B. Rococo and romanticism
C. Neoclassicism and romanticism
D. Romanticism and baroque

A. The painting is about the emotion and desperation of the castaways

8. Théodore Géricault, in Raft of the "Medusa", is unabashedly romantic in which element?

A. The painting is about the emotion and desperation of the castaways.
B. The painting clearly is meant to trigger a longing in the viewer for the order and stability of government.
C. The painting uses delicate brushstrokes and a pastel color palette.
D. The painting uses the separation of two lovers to raise emotional feelings in the viewer.

C. The sense of awe and terror nature inspires in us

9. Define the word sublime as used by the romantics.

A. Perfect and symmetrical
B. Exalted, raised up (as with royalty)
C. The sense of awe and terror nature inspires in us
D. The feelings of fear inspired by the Age of Enlightenment

B. Because Indian architectural forms suggested luxury and escape from day-to-day cares; historicism

10. Why were Indian architectural forms chosen for the Royal Pavilion in Brighton? What trend was being demonstrated?

A. Because Great Britain had recently colonized India and wanted to demonstrate its power through its architectural choices; neoclassicism
B. Because Indian architectural forms suggested luxury and escape from day-to-day cares; historicism
C. Because Indian architectural forms were exotic and different from typical architecture of the period and expressed emotion better than the Greek and Roman forms otherwise used; romanticism
D. Because the Prince Regent loved India and wanted, in essence, a giant Indian "playhouse" for liaisons with his mistress Mrs. Fitzherbert; baroque

It would focus on the peasants who worked the land.

1. How would a realistic landscape look, using realistic specifically to mean the artistic style that developed in the mid-nineteenth century?

A. It would show humans in control of nature.
B. It would convey the overwhelming power of nature. .
C. It would focus on the peasants who worked the land. .
D. It would give the impression of being all about the light in the out-of-doors.

Honoré Daumier; Gustave Courbet; they both deal with death matter-of-factly

2. Identify the artists who created Rue Transnonain and A Burial at Ornans. How are the two works similar?

A. Honoré Daumier; Gustave Courbet; they both deal with death matter-of-factly
B. Edgar Degas; Édouard Manet; they both have clear political overtones to them: the first against the government and the second against the Catholic church
C. Thomas Eakins; Winslow Homer; they both are calming and quiet images
D. Claude Monet; Pierre-Auguste Renoir; they both have primarily male characters in them

D. draw an image on a chemically prepared stone with a greasy crayon or oil-based wash

3. To create a lithograph is to

A. cut away the areas around lines drawn on a block of wood.
B. incise lines in copper plates.
C. coat a copper plate with varnish and then scratch through the varnish to expose the copper plate. That plate is then immersed in acid that cuts the exposed lines.
D. draw an image on a chemically prepared stone with a greasy crayon or oil-based wash.

The clear view of the operation on the thigh; Thomas Eakins felt that art should show what really exists.

4. The Gross Clinic received criticism because of which aspect of the painting? Why did the artist keep that aspect in the painting?

A. The use of light and rough impasto; Thomas Eakins wanted the light to shower the subject so that the painting appeared to be set at high noon.
B. The clear view of the operation on the thigh; Thomas Eakins felt that art should show what really exists.
C. The nostalgia; Thomas Eakins was called "a rank sentimentalist," but he held onto the warm feelings of the painting because he was depicting an old friend.
D. The fact that it was a group portrait; convention at the time applauded only single portraits and "political" pictures, but Thomas Eakins had studied Rembrandt and wanted to emulate his work.

Impressionism and realism both show scenes of contemporary life. However, impressionist paintings typically depict the upper-middle class at leisure or landscapes that emphasize the light over the workers

5. What aspect does impressionism share with realism? Where does it differ?

A. Impressionism and realism both focus on the human figure. Impressionism, however, is far more interested in the female figure than the male figure, whereas realism, in keeping with its focus on the political, is far more interested in male figures.
B. Both impressionism and realism are painted with quick brushstrokes with far less emphasis on drawing skills than previously seen. Impressionism, however, is almost solely devoted to the domestic life rather than the political life. .
C. Impressionism and realism both show scenes of contemporary life. However, impressionist paintings typically depict the upper-middle class at leisure or landscapes that emphasize the light over the workers. .
D. Impressionism and realism coexisted in France and often the painters painted the same scenes. However, impressionist paintings are instantly identifiable because of their darker color palettes.

Claude Monet-he used this technique to make it look as though he was painting extremely quickly!"

6. John and Kara have wandered into a museum on their lunch hour, and John spots a painting of water lilies that is composed entirely of dabs of paint that are not blended together. The surface is emphasized. John bets Kara fifty dollars that he can guess the artist. She takes him up on it. "Easy," he says. "It's clearly

A. Pierre-Auguste Renoir-look at the loose paint strokes!"
B. Edgar Degas-look at the shift in perspective!"
C. Mary Cassatt-she was always painting nature!"
D. Claude Monet-he used this technique to make it look as though he was painting extremely quickly!"

used visible brushstrokes and colors that interacted with each other.

7. Paul Cezanne was similar to the impressionists because he

A. used visible brushstrokes and colors that interacted with each other. .
B. painted landscapes constantly.
C. was interested only in light and not in solidity of objects. .
D. was meticulous about perspective and lining things up properly.

Gauguin's choice to paint visions and dreams made him a romantic. His flatness and intense color made him a postimpressionist.

8. How was Paul Gauguin similar to a romantic? How was he similar to a postimpressionist?

A. Gauguin's desire to flee Paris for Polynesia made him a romantic. However, his desire to paint light alone made him a postimpressionist.
B. Gauguin's choice to paint visions and dreams made him a romantic. His flatness and intense color made him a postimpressionist. .
C. Gauguin's strict use of symmetry in his work made him a romantic. His use of bright colors made him a postimpressionist..
D. Gauguin's love of Japanese prints made him a realist. His rejection of impressionism's focus on visual sensation made him a postimpressionist.

Rodin's work looks unfinished and reveals the artist's touch in ways that are similar to the way you can see the impressionists' brush strokes in their paintings.

9. How can Auguste Rodin, a sculptor, be classified with the impressionists?

A. Impressionist work was all about the surface, and his sculptures are all surface and no depth.
B. The impressionists believed in light, and Rodin's sculptures are notable for their bright white surfaces that reflect light every way.
C. Rodin's work looks unfinished and reveals the artist's touch in ways that are similar to the way you can see the impressionists' brush strokes in their paintings.
D. He was contemporary with the impressionists and friends with them, and they allowed him to display his work at their shows.

The inventions of structural steel and reinforced concrete

10. Louis Sullivan designed skyscrapers in order to have taller buildings in scarce downtown land. What enabled him to do this?

A. The use of cast iron as structural supports
B. The rediscovery of the recipe for concrete, lost since Roman times
C. The invention of the escalator
D. The inventions of structural steel and reinforced concrete

B. The group's organizing principle, which was to directly and truthfully paint whatever they felt, and their visual influences of Munch and fifteenth- and sixteenth-century German woodcuts

1. Mary is working on an art history web site for children and trying to recreate certain styles of art for the children to use as examples when painting their own pictures. When she begins work on a German expressionist piece, she is thinking in particular of Die Brücke. She has two influences to consider. What are they?

A. The group's organizing principle, which was to use color to create emotional impact, and their visual influences of Gauguin and van Gogh
B. The group's organizing principle, which was to directly and truthfully paint whatever they felt, and their visual influences of Munch and fifteenth- and sixteenth-century German woodcuts..
C. The group's most famous disciple, Pablo Picasso, and their historical placement in Germany during World War I
D. The group's most famous disciple, Piet Mondrian, and their historical placement in post-WWI Europe

D. Just as musical tones can produce feelings without imitating sounds we hear in nature, color could do the same in art.

2. The first step toward nonobjective painting was made by Vasily Kandinsky. What was his justification for painting pictures with few if any recognizable objects?

A. It was too hard to reproduce what an object really looked like and much easier to retreat to kindergarten-type drawings.
B. The world already had seen a well-painted tree; now it was time to celebrate the shapes in an object rather than a particular object.
C. The absurdity of WWI allowed artists the freedom to celebrate the absurd in their work and that included not reproducing objects exactly. .
D. Just as musical tones can produce feelings without imitating sounds we hear in nature, color could do the same in art. .

A. Analytic cubism involves breaking apart experience into component parts. Synthetic cubism is the opposite, rebuilding objects from simple shapes and flat colors.

3. Compare analytic and synthetic cubism. How do they differ?

A. Analytic cubism involves breaking apart experience into component parts. Synthetic cubism is the opposite, rebuilding objects from simple shapes and flat colors.
B. Analytic cubism involves thinking through the picture before painting it and then painting it quickly. Synthetic cubism involves using everyday household objects to create a type of collage that represents objects. .
C. Analytic cubism is seen in Picasso's work in which areas of paint look like flat sheets of paper and seem to blend in with the background. Synthetic cubism is seen in Georges Braque's work and is fragmented and monochromatic. .
D. Analytic cubism is an angular use of space. Synthetic cubism is a softer use of space with rounded edges.

C. Umberto Boccioni

4. Which of the following artists created Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, one of the best known futurist works?

A. Pablo Picasso
B. Georges Braque
C. Umberto Boccioni
D. Kazimir Malevich

B. The formal elements, such as diagonal composition, variations in shape, and slight changes to the geometric forms

5. In a work of suprematism, what is meant to give visual interest?

A. The way the light shines on the objects and the depth of the shadows
B. The formal elements, such as diagonal composition, variations in shape, and slight changes to the geometric forms
C. The classical elements of composition, such as how the artist uses triangles and diagonals in placing key elements of the painting
D. The size of the painting and the size of the objects in the paintings

He began by painting simple landscapes and then reduced those to a tree and then reduced the tree to shapes. He was exploring the ideas of structure and balance and found it easier to do so by painting abstractions.

6. Mondrian ended up painting lines and rectangles of pure primary colors. How did he begin? What was the link between the two styles?

A. He began by painting simple landscapes and then reduced those to a tree and then reduced the tree to shapes. He was exploring the ideas of structure and balance and found it easier to do so by painting abstractions.
B. He began by painting realistic nudes and then became interested in Van Gogh's use of color. It was too controversial to paint nudes in those colors, so he began painting "safe" subjects such as rectangles and squares instead.
C. He began by working side-by-side with Picasso to develop cubism, and then, after suffering a nervous breakdown during WWI, began painting actual cubes.
D. He began by working with architecture and drawing building plans for Gerrit Rietveld. Gradually he became interested in the rectangular shapes of the houses and rooms and how to represent those shapes on a canvas.

D. Surrealists welcomed absurdity, like the dada artists, but were more concerned with the absurdity of the inner mind than the absurdity of life and art.

7. How is surrealism different from dada?

A. Surrealists were obsessed with sexual images, fetishizing everything they saw. Dada artists rejected sexual imagery as having too much to do with the body and not the mind.
B. Surrealist art has a narrative and can often be explained; dada art prides itself on no narrative.
C. Surrealists were more heavily involved in the outer world than dada artists who had retreated from the absurdity of life into complete randomness.
D. Surrealists welcomed absurdity, like the dada artists, but were more concerned with the absurdity of the inner mind than the absurdity of life and art.

B. The flowers she painted are so enlarged that the image is an abstract one, mostly of smooth shapes and colors.

8. How does Georgia O'Keeffe fit into the abstract movement?

A. The squares and rectangles she painted were abstract versions of the flowers she began her career by painting.
B. The flowers she painted are so enlarged that the image is an abstract one, mostly of smooth shapes and colors.
C. She wasn't an abstract artist herself, but through her friendship with abstract artists, she helped to introduce it to American artists of the 1920s and 1930s.
D. She painted shapes and lines, and only afterwards did she attempt to construct some sort of narrative about what they represented.

B. Wood's paintings use far brighter colors than Eakins's paintings do; he's clearly been influenced by van Gogh and his paintings of wheat fields and workers.

9. In America, regionalism was also a vital force during the 1920s and 1930s. How did Grant Wood's paintings differ from earlier American artists, such as Thomas Eakins?

A. Wood's paintings are often smoothed or simplified, with more attention to abstract design than Eakins's paintings..
B. Wood's paintings use far brighter colors than Eakins's paintings do; he's clearly been influenced by van Gogh and his paintings of wheat fields and workers. .
C. Wood's paintings are much more complex than Eakins's paintings, with clear ties to Hieronymous Bosch and his portrayal of peasants in the fields. .
D. Wood's paintings use the human nude in overtly sexual presentations, which would not have occurred to Thomas Eakins.

D. Their strong horizontal lines are meant to reflect the flatness of the land around them.

10. Frank Lloyd Wright's houses in Chicago are meant to reflect what aspect of their setting?

A. Their fluid arrangement of rooms is meant to reference the flexibility and can-do spirit of America.
B. Their strong vertical lines are meant to reference the skyscrapers that Wright's teacher, Louis Sullivan, built in Chicago.
C. Their colors are meant to reflect the colors of the plains-oranges, purples, and simple greens.
D. Their strong horizontal lines are meant to reflect the flatness of the land around them.

That art should be representational and that it should be intellectual

1. What two assumptions about art did abstract expressionism attempt to undo?

A. That art should be representational and that it should be intellectual
B. That art should be about form alone and that it should be as highly emotional as possible
C. That art should be formal and symmetrical and that it should be pleasing to the eye ..
D. That art should be about political subjects and that it should be made in a lasting format

Autumn allows you to see the complex interweaving and overall composition of the picture. Brown is more interested in showing separation and contrast, using forms that seem to hang in space.

2. Jackson Pollock and Mark Rothko are outstanding exemplars of gestural and color field painting, respectively. Compare Autumn Rhythm (Number 30) with Brown, Blue, Brown on Blue.

A. Autumn uses color to suggest its theme, with browns, golds, and oranges predominating. Brown uses shape and form to allow you to see its theme of family togetherness. .
B. Autumn is most interested in how to best suggest forms without actually making forms-for instance, you might see a nude woman as you stare at the canvas. Brown is most interested in color saturation and how to get the most color across to the viewer. .
C. Autumn allows you to see the complex interweaving and overall composition of the picture. Brown is more interested in showing separation and contrast, using forms that seem to hang in space..
D. Autumn shows actual people doing actual things, a rarity in twentieth-century work. Brown hews closely to the abstract line, and it is impossible to decide what it is about.

They are stripped of any evidence of the artist's hand and are objects on a wall, following the dictates of formalism that an art object is an object we call art.

3. How do Donald Judd's boxes represent formalism's dictates?

A. They are painted with vivid colors and are arranged carefully on a gallery floor, following the dictates of formalism that art must be formally arranged. .
B. They are stripped of any evidence of the artist's hand and are objects on a wall, following the dictates of formalism that an art object is an object we call art. .
C. They are user-friendly and the viewer is encouraged to interact with them, following the dictates (and ironies) of formalism that viewers are encouraged to be informal with the art. .
D. They force the viewer to confront his or her ideas and prejudices about shapes by being boxes of different sizes and shapes, following the dictates of formalism that art should force the viewer to do something he or she doesn't want to do.

C. Combines or assemblages

4. Jasper Johns's work was usually about mundane subjects. Both he and Robert Rauschenberg created which of the following to comment on the world with humor?

A. Performance art or installations
B. Sculptures of boxes or wagon wheels
C. Combines or assemblages
D. Prints or oil paintings

In both cases, they did so in part by enlarging the objects or images and forcing the viewer to really look at the items.

5. Pop art treats the stuff of modern life as art. How did Roy Lichtenstein and Claes Oldenburg transform common objects into art?

A. They designed beautiful but distinctly different types of household items (teapots, trivets, and so forth). .
B. They both created huge collages, Lichtenstein in New York and Oldenburg in Paris, that used everyday objects from the home and street. .
C. In both cases, they applied layers of paint and "found" objects over the top of common objects so that, in the end, the objects themselves would be almost unrecognizable. .
D. In both cases, they did so in part by enlarging the objects or images and forcing the viewer to really look at the items.

They are both heavily influenced by photography-in particular, the printing techniques used for photographs, though in different ways.

6. In what way are Chuck Close's paintings similar to Andy Warhol's paintings?

A. They are both heavily influenced by photography-in particular, the printing techniques used for photographs, though in different ways.
B. They are both brightly colored; in fact, they are almost garish in their use of color.
C. They both treat subjects that become almost unrecognizable after the artists have manipulated their images. .
D. They are among the few artists in the twentieth century who continued to make religious art.

B. Spiral Jetty by Robert Smithson, because the piece stands as a metaphor for how we impose forms on nature and then watch them be reclaimed

7. Which of the following exemplifies conceptual art and why?

A. Marilyn Diptych by Andy Warhol, because his use of color recalls van Gogh's use of color
B. Spiral Jetty by Robert Smithson, because the piece stands as a metaphor for how we impose forms on nature and then watch them be reclaimed
C. Vir Heroicus Sublimus by Barnett Newman, because the painting requires an understanding of the title in order to understand what you're looking at
D. Canyon by Robert Rauschenberg, because the art is so abstract that it requires a thorough understanding of concepts throughout art history to understand it

. The memorials are similar in that both works are meant to arouse emotion. The Vietnam Memorial does it by taking the viewer below ground level, evoking graves, and forcing viewers to enter the space the monument creates. The Marcus Aurelius does it by conveying the overwhelming power of Marcus Aurelius in his calm control over his horse.

8. Compare Maya Ying Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial with a more traditional monument, such as the Marcus Aurelius equestrian monument. How are they similar?

A. The two are similar in that they are both traditional representations of power and control over nature. The Vietnam Memorial evokes this by celebrating a slash in the ground-one that could only have been created by man. The Marcus Aurelius does it by showing him controlling a storm with the touch of his finger.
B. The two are similar in that they are both carved of marble. Otherwise, they are almost completely dissimilar.
C. The memorials are similar in that both works are meant to arouse emotion. The Vietnam Memorial does it by taking the viewer below ground level, evoking graves, and forcing viewers to enter the space the monument creates. The Marcus Aurelius does it by conveying the overwhelming power of Marcus Aurelius in his calm control over his horse.
D. The memorials are similar in that both works are meant to arouse anger. The Vietnam Memorial does it by forcing the viewer to confront the names of the dead. The Marcus Aurelius does it by forcing the viewer to confront the cruelty of Marcus Aurelius, shown whipping his horse with a haughty expression of his face.

It's an installation, and it uses the artist's political stance as a layer in the work.

9. How does Judy Chicago's installation The Dinner Party exemplify contemporary art?

A. It's an installation, and it uses the artist's political stance as a layer in the work.
B. It is completely abstract and non-representational, which makes it difficult to categorize.
C. It is monochromatic because using color might distract viewers from the forms used.
D. It manipulates the viewer's emotions by using traditional imagery in completely horrifying ways.

He refers back to Frank Lloyd Wright's Guggenheim Museum in New York City, which is also spiral-shaped.

10. How does Frank O. Gehry's Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao indulge in a little historicism?

A. He refers back to Brunelleschi's dome on the Florence Cathedral to evoke the grandeur and the sense of awe of that building in his building.
B. He refers back to the Royal Pavilion in Brighton, which itself referred back to architectural forms from India to suggest luxury and escape from the day-to-day. The use of bright color outside the museum is meant to evoke a similar feeling.
C. He refers back to Palladio and his Roman temples, created during the Renaissance, with the temple front.
D. He refers back to Frank Lloyd Wright's Guggenheim Museum in New York City, which is also spiral-shaped.

the triangular area for sculpture under the roof of a temple.

1. A pediment is

A. the long beam that crosses the columns of a Greek temple.
B. the area for sculpture next to the triglyphs.
C. the platform on which a Greek temple stands.
D. the triangular area for sculpture under the roof of a temple.

are seen on the Erechtheion in Athens.

2. Caryatids

A. are the scroll-like forms on Ionic capitals.
B. are spaces where sculpture can be placed below the roof of a Greek temple.
C. are the statues placed inside the cella of a Greek temple.
D. are seen on the Erechtheion in Athens.

B. a sacred precinct above a Greek city.

3. An acropolis is

A. a marketplace in the center of a typical Roman town plan.
B. a sacred precinct above a Greek city.
C. an area where Roman politicians would give speeches.
D. an early form of an outdoor theater.

a wide variety of subject matter, including still life and genre scenes.

4. Roman wall painting shows

A. that the Romans mastered linear perspective.
B. that many of the illusionistic techniques that the Greeks mastered were being lost.
C. a wide variety of subject matter, including still life and genre scenes.
D. the desire to recreate the cycle of life so it could be seen by the dead in the afterlife.

the Roman temple dedicated to all the gods.

5. The Pantheon is

A. the most perfect example of a Greek Doric temple.
B. a basilica built by Constantine.
C. the Roman temple dedicated to all the gods.
D. a monument commemorating the emperor Titus's conquest of Jerusalem.

B. used the Roman basilica as a model.

6. Christian churches built under the auspices of Constantine

A. used the Greek temple as a model.
B. used the Roman basilica as a model.
C. were small house churches with a special room set aside for a baptistery.
D. were square in plan as a symbol of the nature of God.

the meaning of a work of art found in its symbols and subject matter.

7. Iconography refers to

A. the meaning of a work of art found in its symbols and subject matter.
B. the way that Christians used secret signs to avoid being persecuted by the Romans.
C. the system of showing space convincingly in a painting.
D. the destruction of religious images.

scriptoria of monasteries.

8. In the Carolingian period, manuscripts were copied in

A. libraries of the universities.
B. scriptoria of monasteries.
C. print shops in the towns.
D. lecterns in seminaries.

round arch

9. The type of arch that characterizes Romanesque architecture is the

A. ribbed arch.
B. corbelled arch.
C. round arch.
D. pointed arch.

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