Reading for Virginia Educators (RVE): 0306/5306

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From the Study Guide for the Reading for Virginia Educators; Elementary and Special Education Test by ets.org

To effectively promote family involvement in literacy activities, teachers can encourage parents to

A) buy comics and story books
B) get their child a library card
C) discuss stories and experiences at home
D) volunteer in the school's media center

C) discuss stories and experiences at home

This practice is recommended based upon research by Jim Trelease and the National Institute of Education's Commission on Reading. Discussing stories and experiences at home promotes family involvement and the increase of oral language and vocabulary development, both critical to achieving literacy success.

Which of the following should be the primary focus when using a holistic rubric to score a writing assignment?

A) The overall structure and quality
B) The appropriate use of vocabulary
C) The student's performance on a specific criterion
D) The levels of performance for each criteria

A) The overall structure and quality

Holistic rubrics assess the student's work as a whole, not just portions of the assessment. The overall structure and quality of the rubric is the primary focus and will help the teacher assess properly and with more accuracy.

Which of the following strategies will be most beneficial for students during the revising stage of the writing process?

A) Using a graphic organizer
B) Brainstorming ideas as a class
C) Holding peer conferences
D) Typing their work on the computer

C) Holding peer conferences

Holding peer conferences is a strategy you use during the revising stage of writing.

Students in a sixth-grade class are preparing to give an oral report on a famous writer they have researched. Which of the following strategies would be most effective in helping the student prepare for speaking before an audience?

A) Providing a copy of the report to all the students in the classroom
B) Writing key words on note cards and referring to the cards during the presentation
C) Memorizing the entire report before the presentation
D) Creating a media based presentation to read the report directly from

B) Writing key words on note cards and referring to the cards during the presentation

Writing key words on not cards and referring to them during the presentation can provide students with the necessary outline of ideas in case they forget any details.

During a writing class, the teacher asks the students to identify the purpose of their wring, select an audience, and outline the main ideas of the topic. The students are most likely at which stage of writing?

A) Publishing
B) Editing
C) Drafting
D) Prewriting

D) Prewriting

All of these steps are actions taken by a teacher before students being writing.

Which of the following activities involves structural analysis?

A) Students identify the beginning, middle, and end sounds in words
B) Students use individual sounds to blend the letters that make up a word
C) Students identify the number of syllables that make up different words
D) Students unlock the meaning of a word by considering the word parts

D) Students unlock the meaning of a word by considering the word parts

Structural analysis deals with how the structure of words (including word parts) can help people identify the meaning.

While observing a student reading, the teacher notices that the student does not match letters with their correct sounds. The student is most likely having problems with

A) comprehension
B) syntax
C) graphophonic cues
D) reading fluency

C) graphophonic cues

Graph (means print) and phonic (means sounds) - meaning, letter/sound correspondence - the skill identified as troublesome for the student.

Which of the following is the primary purpose of asking a student to retell a story?

A) To measure the student's level of comprehension
B) To measure the student's vocabulary development
C) To determine the student's fluency rate
D) To determine the student's oral reading progress

A) To measure the student's level of comprehension

Retelling is an informal assessment of reading comprehension.

- Sending classroom newsletters
- Requesting classroom volunteers
- Making regular phone calls
- Establishing a book loan program

All of the above mentioned practices how a teacher's support of

A) lesson planning
B) cooperative learning
C) homework
D) parental involvement

D) parental involvement

Classroom newsletters, requesting classroom volunteers, making positive phone class home, and integrating a book loan program within your classroom all promote parental involvement with their child's learning.

Which of the following terms describes the understanding that spoken words consist of a sequence of individual sounds?

A) Morphology
B) Phonemic awareness
C) Graphophonic cues
D) Syntax

B) Phonemic awareness

The question (Understanding that spoken words consist of a sequence of individual sounds) is clearly defining phonemic awareness.

Mr. Jones has a new student in his class and he would like to use assessment data to inform his instruction and his selection of instructional reading materials. He could best determine the student's independent, instructional, and frustration reading levels by:

A) Administering a norm-referenced reading test.
B) Having students complete a CLOZE assessment.
C) Conducting an Informal Reading Inventory.
D) Reviewing the previous year's SOL scores in reading.

C) Conducting an Informal Reading Inventory.

Conducting an Informal Reading Inventory would be the best way to determine the student's independent, instructional, and frustration reading levels. This information would be helpful to a teacher both for instruction and selection of instructional reading materials.

Which of the following processes can a teacher use before a reading activity, to activate the students' prior knowledge?

A) Literacy circles
B) Structural analysis
C) Semantic mapping
D) Word creation

C) Semantic mapping

Semantic mapping is a visual strategy for vocabulary expansion and extension of knowledge by displaying in categories words related to one another. Semantic mapping is an adaptation of concept definition mapping but builds on student's prior knowledge or schema.

A beneficial strategy for students during the revising stage of the writing process is

A) using a graphic organizer
B) brainstorming ideas
C) peer conferences
D) typing their work on the computer

C) peer conferences

This strategy is used during the revising stage of writing. Both A and B are performed during the pre-writing stage. Having students type their work does not promote the revising stage of writing. Therefore, it is incorrect.

A student pronounces the word <i>flat</i> as <i>fat</i>. Instruction in which of the following areas will most likely benefit the student?

A) Consonant digraphs
B) Graphemes
C) Consonant blends
D) Dipthongs

C) Consonant blends

Consonant blends are a sequence of two or three consonants, each of which is heard with minimal change.

A teacher asks a student to break a word into its individual sounds by moving a marker for each sound. This is an example of which type of phonemic awareness task?

A) Deleting phonemes
B) Adding phonemes
C) Substituting phonemes
D) Segmenting phonemes

D) Segmenting phonemes

This is an example of segmenting phonemes.

During a writing assignment, a beginning kindergarten student wrote "I lv m d", meaning "I love my dog". Which of the following stages of early writing development does the student's writing reflect?

A) Phonetic
B) Semi-phonetic
C) Transitional
D) Conventional

B) Semi-phonetic

In the semi-phonetic stage, spelling is characterized by the letter sound correspondence, clearly visible with the way the student spelled his/her sentence.

A fourth-grade teacher is developing a writing assignment, the goal of which is to help students persuade readers to agree with an opinion. Which of the following writing prompts is most appropriate in the situation?

A) Describe your favorite television show.
B) Write a new episode of your favorite television show.
C) How are the television shows you watch different than the shows your parents watched when they were your age?
D) Should a limit be placed on the amount of time children spend watching television?

D) Should a limit be placed on the amount of time children spend watching television?

This prompt requires students to form a position and support it with reasons.

Gerald is reading a story that has several new vocabulary words. He is using the events of the story and the text around the new vocabulary words to understand the meaning of the words. Which of the following strategies is Gerald using?

A) Context clues
B) Self monitoring
C) Semantic mapping
D) Morphology

A) Context clues

It refers to people using words or sentences around an unfamiliar word to help clarify its meaning, clearly what Gerald did in this situation.

A student is actively engaged in reading a book and makes judgments and decisions beyond what is stated in the text. Which of the following comprehension methods is the student using?

A) Inferential
B) Literal
C) Vocabulary
D) Internal

A) Inferential

Inferential questions required students to go use their background knowledge and the clues within the story and answer questions based on that. This process is exactly what this student was actively engaged in.

Many of Ms. Nucera's kindergarten students are beginning to use invented spelling when writing. From the writing sample below obtained during the second quarter of the school year, she can determine that:

(See Page 49 in Chapter 7 of study guide for picture)

HejKotB

"She jumped up and caught the ball"

A) the student has an emerging understanding of sound symbol relationships
B) the student understands that letters go from left to right, but cannot yet match speech to print
C) the student displays an emerging concept of word boundaries
D) the student understands that each syllable must contain a vowel sound

A) the student has an emerging understanding of sound symbol relationships

Analysis of the writing sample indicates that the student has at least an emerging understanding of sound symbol relationships which is an indication of emerging phonemic awareness. Sounds symbol relationships include writing the initial sounds heard in the words: jumped, caught, and ball. The student also attempted the medial and ending sounds in caught.

A student who reads with expression, appropriate phrasing, and good inflection is described as reading with

A) generalization
B) inference
C) intensity
D) prosody

D) prosody

Prosody is the appropriate use of phrasing and expression to convey meaning, clearly what was described in this question.

After reading a story, a fourth-grade teacher asked the students to compare two characters from the story. Which of the following graphic organizers would best help the students with the assignment?

A) Venn diagram
B) Cluster diagram
C) Sequence chart
D) Flow chart

A) Venn diagram

A Venn diagram is used to compare and contrast two things in a graphic organizer consisting of two overlapping circles. In this example the teacher is asking the students to compare two characters.

Which of the following best describes the use of reading response journals?

A) Students choose books that appeal to them and are at their own instructional level.
B) Students demonstrate skills such as careful observation, critical reasoning, critical thinking, and the ability to justify or contest existing knowledge.
C) Students express their thoughts, feelings, reactions, and questions about a book they are reading.
D) Students identify the characters, setting, conflict and resolution of the story they are reading.

C) Students express their thoughts, feelings, reactions, and questions about a book they are reading.

Reading response journals are utilized in a classroom as a strategy for students to express their thoughts to a book they are reading. It connects reading and writing.

Which of the following is an effective instructional strategy to help English-Language learners (ELLs) become successful readers?

A) Having ELLs listen to recorded versions of stories
B) Giving ELLs books that do not contain illustrations
C) Analyzing story events only in English
D) Having students translate English stories into their native language

A) Having ELLs listen to recorded versions of stories

Listening to language and stories helps ELL students listening for sounds, and helps them imitate successful reading.

Syllabification can be used to help emergent student readers by supporting the students' ability to

A) decode words into units of sound
B) determine letter sounds
C) identify prefixes and suffixes easily
D) recognize the rhythm of a story

A) decode words into units of sound

Syllabication is the act of breaking big words up into smaller parts so they can be pronounced and spelled more easily.

Which list of words would be appropriate for assessing student knowledge of the /t/ sound for the ending -ed?

A) Wanted, sorted, branded
B) Ticked, ditched, nipped
C) Fringed, dodged, hummed
D) Attached, angled, invented

B) Ticked, ditched, nipped

The correct pronunciation of the -ed in these three words is /t/.

Based on an assessment administered at the beginning of the school year, Lola's teacher has determined that she is able to identify the beginning sound or words in context. However, she fails to decode the rest of the word and guesses any word she knows that starts with that sound. Lola most likely has a problem with

A) fluency
B) sight words
C) phonological awareness
D) concept of print

C) phonological awareness

The student has identified the beginning sounds of words but did not continue to decode the other sounds in the words. This area needs to be strengthened so that the student can master the manipulation of spoken sounds before connecting those sounds to their corresponding letters.

In a first-grade class, the teacher reads a story aloud, while the students echo the words after the teacher. Which of the following approaches to reading is described?

A) Reader's workshop
B) Shared reading
C) Round robin
D) Guided reading

B) Shared reading

Shared reading is an interactive reading experience. Children join in the reading of a big book or other enlarged text as guided by a teacher or other experienced reader.

A second-grade teacher demonstrates the act of writing by thinking aloud while composing text on the board. She also asks the students to focus on how she selects interesting vocabulary during the writing process. Which of the following instructional strategies is the teacher using?

A) Modeling
B) Shared writing
C) Guided writing
D) Interactive writing

A) Modeling

This scenario describes the teacher modeling a strategy for students to mimic.

How many phonemes are in the word "straight"?

A) 3
B) 4
C) 5
D) 8

C) 5

When counting phonemes a consonant blend /str/ stands for 3 sounds, after, it is followed by the long /a/ sound and the final /t/ sound for a total of 5.

Which of the following pair of words would a student need to use context clues to derive their connotation?

A) Said and task
B) Brush and ruler
C) Apples and grapes
D) Rug and ready

B) Brush and ruler

Context will determine the meaning of these words (brush: art vs. geography; ruler: math vs. social studies).

<i>Accomodate</i> and <i>television</i> each have how many syllables?

A) 2
B) 3
C) 4
D) 5

C) 4

Syllabication is the forming of syllables or the division o f words into syllables. In this case, both words can be divided into 4 word parts. Ac-com-mo-date and te-le-vi-sion

Words that cannot be sounded out according to regular pronunciation rules are called irregular words. Which list below contains irregular words?

A) Man, came, well, in
B) We, him, get, so
C) Do, said, was, of
D) How, had, make, not

C) Do, said, was, of

Irregular words are those in which one or more letters do not represent their most common sounds. For answer choice C - all of these words have irregular pronunciations.

In a one-on-one setting, Mr. Diaz asks his 1st-grade student to do the following tasks:

Listen,/man/. What sound does /man/ start with? Change the first sound in /man/ to /p/. What is the new word? Now change the last sound in /pan/ to /t/. What is the new word?

What skill is Mr. Diaz assessing?

A) Print awareness
B) alphabetic principle
C) decoding in context
D) phoneme substitution

D) phoneme substitution

Students who have firm phonemic awareness are able to manipulate sounds in words to make new words.

During a writing workshop, Marc, a fourth-grade student, has difficulty developing and organizing his ideas for an essay about his favorite baseball team. With the help of his teacher, Marc uses a cluster diagram to identify smaller topics and to write details he could use in his writing. At which stage of the writing process is Marc?

A) Revising
B) Drafting
C) Prewriting
D) Editing

C) Prewriting

A cluster diagram is most helpful during the planning of prewriting stage when a writer is still organizing and generating his ideas.

Many primary teachers start their day by singing songs or practicing rhymes with predictable patterns with their students. They may do things like manipulate the words of songs, clap syllables, use alliteration, and talk about the words in the song. These are ways of practicing

A) Comprehension
B) Phonological awareness
C) Decoding
D) Think-pair-share

B) Phonological awareness

The answer is phonemic awareness because students are practicing oral pre-reading skills without relying on text.

A fourth-grade class brainstorms traits that describe a character from the story they have just read. They list "friendly," "helpful," and "generous." The teacher then asks the students to imagine if the character had traits that were in the opposite of the words the listed. The stduents write a paragraph describing the different ways that the story would be different if the character had these new traits. What skill does this activity help the students to develop?

A) Develop evaluative comprehension
B) Identify textual evidence to support their ideas
C) Understand how characters impact a story
D) Make predictions from details from the text

C) Understand how characters impact a story

By speculating how the story would be different, the students will see how the character impacted the events in the story.

A fifth-grade class is using the following chart during their study of a narrative text.

(See chart on page 52 of Chapter 7 of study guide)

Which of the following skills does the third column (III) help students to develop?

A) Making inferences
B) Finding textural evidence to support ideas
C) Understanding character motivation
D) Making predictions

A) Making inferences

When readers make inferences they interpret ideas not stated explicitly in the text and draw appropriate conclusions. They go beyond what the author has written on the page. Readers put together clues from the text and make evidence-based guesses about character motives, the plot, the problem, the solution, etc.

Several fourth-grade students are having trouble focusing on what they read. They report that their minds wander and cannot remember what they have just read. Which of the following strategies would help the students use metacognitive awareness to improve their comprehension.

A) Identifying important details about the story on a graphic organizer
B) Locate and define unfamiliar words
C) Select reading material that is easier for the student
D) Record questions, thoughts, ideas on sticky notes as he is reading

D) Record questions, thoughts, ideas on sticky notes as he is reading

Metacognitive awareness (being able to think about one's own thinking) is a critical component of learning, because it enables learners to assess their level of comprehension and adjust their strategies for greater success.

Which of the following is a comprehension strategy used to stimulate interest in a topic in which students respond to key concepts or themes presented in the text that are structured as a series of statements with which the students can choose to agree or disagree.

A) KWL
B) Anticipation guide
C) Concept web
D) Story map

B) Anticipation guide

Also known as reaction guide or prediction guide, is a prereading strategy that encourages students to react to various statements in order to determine a purpose for reading and stimulate interest.

- I reread the paper carefully for all errors.
- I checked the paper for complete sentences.
- I double-checked for correct spelling.
- I capitalized all proper nouns.

At which stage of the writing process would the above checklist be most helpful for third-grade students?

A) Rewriting
B) Editing
C) Revising
D) Drafting

B) Editing

During the editing stage, students correct errors in spelling, capitalization, and punctuation.

The following passage is from Natalie Babbitt's novel <i>Tuck Everlasting</i>.

"The first week of August hangs at the very top of summer, the top of the live-long year, like the highest seat of a Ferris wheel when it pauses in its turning...[T]he first week of August is motionless, and hot. It is curiously silent, too, which blank white dawns and glaring noons, and sunsets smeared with too much color. Often there is lightning, but it quivers all alone. There is no thunder, no relieving rain."

A fifth-grade teacher selects the above passage to introduce a new strategy her students can use while they are reading. Which of the following reading comprehension strategies does this selection best help to develop

A) Predicting
B) Clarifying
C) Visualizing
D) Evaluating

C) Visualizing

The passage describes the setting of the novel. The rich imagery lends itself to visualization.

Mr. Smith stops himself while reading aloud to his whole class. "Hmm. the main character is trying to decide who he should side with. He has to choose between his best friend and his girlfriend. I wonder what he'll decide. students, think in your head about what you think will happen next. Now, turn to your partner and tell them your prediction." Mr. Smith pauses for about 60 seconds to allow students to share their predictions. He 'listens in' to hear what some pairs of students are saying. "Is there anyone who would like to share their prediction?" Mr. Smith allows some students to share their predictions with the whole class.

Which of the following strategies has Mr. Smith employed?

A) paired reading
B) oral cloze
C) shared reading
D) think-pair-share

D) think-pair-share

Think-pair-share means that students will (1) think individually about a topic or answer to a question; (2) pair with a partner and discuss the topic or question; and (3) share ideas with the rest of the class. The teacher has used this strategy to encourage critical thinking during interactive read aloud.

To encourage students to write more descriptive essays, a fourth-grade teacher asks the students to write an essay about a memorable moment. Which of the following strategies can the teacher incorporate to support the students in that area?

A) Asking the students to make a list of sensory images
B) Encouraging the students to use a thesaurus to find synonyms for some of their word choices
C) Explaining how the students can incorporate transition words
D) Suggesting that the students combine sentences

A) Asking the students to make a list of sensory images

Making a list of sensory images describing the event would help the students to add details about the topic.

A first-grade student shows evidence of phonological awareness but has difficulty segmenting words into phonemes. Which of the below questions is likely to be the most challenging for the student to answer?

A) Listen to these word parts: /p/.../i/.../ck/. What is the word?
B) Which two words rhyme: fun, sun, tan?
C) Listen to this word: sad. How many sounds do you hear?
D) Which two words have the same medial sound: fit, bin, can?

C) Listen to this word: sad. How many sounds do you hear?

When segmenting words into sounds, the student listens for and identifies phonemes in the word.

Each day, Mrs. Nelson sings songs with her kindergarten students during calendar time. Using a chart with the song printed on it, she taps her pointer on each word as she sings it orally with her students. She is demonstrating

A) Concept of print
B) decoding
C) think aloud
D) alphabetic principle

A) Concept of print

The teacher is demonstrating concept of print by using her pointer to show one-to-one correspondence for the words in the song.

First-grader Matthew knows initial and final consonants and also uses but confuses some medial short vowels. He does not use blends and digraphs very much, if at all. Matthew is ready to study blends and digraphs with pictures and mixed-vowel word families. Which of the following stages of spelling development describes Matthew?

A) Emergent
B) Letter-name
C) Syllables and affixes
D) Derivational relations

B) Letter-name

The student is a letter-name speller because he has letter-sound knowledge and is ready to move on to more complex, single-syllable words.

A third-grade class is studying polar bears in their social studies class. Their teacher prepares the following writing assignment:

How would the story of "Goldilocks and the Three Bears" be different if it took place near the Arctic Circle?

Which of the following does this assignment help to develop?

A) Make connections between previous experiences and reading selections.
B) Compare and contrast settings, characters, and events.
C) Draw conclusions about how setting impacts a story.
D) Understand basic plots of fairy tales, myths, folktales, legends, and fables.

C) Draw conclusions about how setting impacts a story.

By changing the setting of the story, the students would draw conclusions about how details in the setting would be different.

How many phonemes does the word "shade" have?

A) 4
B) 3
C) 5
D) 2

B) 3

The word shade has three phonemes: /sh/-/ā/-/d/. Phonemes roughly correspond to the letters but the connection is not one-to-one. It can be confusing because early readers will want to segment the word into four parts /s/-/h/-/ā/-/d/.

Which of the following responses demonstrates a students' ability to make connections with the text he or she is reading?

A) I think the boy is going to get in trouble when his mother finds out
B) I don't understand why the boy lied.
C) This reminds me of a time when I got in trouble for lying.
D) I see now that the boy was angry with his brother and that's why he lied.

C) This reminds me of a time when I got in trouble for lying.

With this statement, the student is clearly connecting something from his life to the story being read.

Which of the following strategies would be most helpful in enabling students to identify the structure and purpose of a nonfiction text they are about to read?

A) Create a KWL chart
B) Preview titles, headings, captions, maps, charts, and graphs
C) Create a concept web to help build background knowledge.
D) Formulate questions about the text.

B) Preview titles, headings, captions, maps, charts, and graphs

Previewing headings, captions, maps, charts, and graphs would help students to determine the type of information that is contained and understand the structure of the text.

"My vacation was exciting. We did many interesting things. We went to the beach. We played in the sand. It was really hot so we went in the water. We played games in the water. We had an amazing time.

A third-grade student wrote the above paragraph about her summer vacation. Which of the following areas should the teacher focus on during a writing conference with the student?

A) Word choice
B) Sentence variety
C) Spelling
D) Fragments and run-ons

B) Sentence variety

The writer begins most of her sentences with "We." She would benefit from assistance with combining sentences or finding different ways to begin her sentences to add variety.

What would a first grade teacher use to tailor spelling instruction for their students?

A) Informal Reading Inventory
B) Basal Reader Spelling Inventory
C) Word Study Journeys Development Spelling Analysis
D) A list of recognized sight words

C) Word Study Journeys Development Spelling Analysis

In order to tailor instruction appropriately for students, it is important for teachers to learn about their students' orthographic understandings. The Developmental Spelling Analysis enables teachers to readily and confidently identify individual students' stages of spelling development. It can also highlight specific strengths and weaknesses in featural knowledge so instruction can be timely and appropriate. Progress is also monitored over time using this assessment.

What would a teacher initially do to begin instruction for guided reading groups?

A) Text selection
B) Observe and analyze individuals
C) Re-group students according to ability
D) Meet with the guided reading groups about three to five times per week

B) Observe and analyze individuals

Teachers should observe and analyze individual students to establish small guided reading groups. Students cannot be grouped unless the teacher knows their reading level/ability.

Marie Clay uses which tool for coding, scoring, and analyzing students precise reading behaviors?

A) Spelling inventory
B) DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills)
C) Sight-word assessment
D) Running record

D) Running record

Marie Clay is credited with creating the concept of running records. Running Records are a tool for coding, scoring, and analyzing a child's precise reading behaviors. Marie Clay's book, "An Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement," contains a complete and thorough description of this technique and provides a running record form that is to be used for that purpose.

Which of the following sets of transition words would best help a student comprehend an article that compares two states?

A) On the other hand, however, in addition to
B) As a result, therefore, because
C) At the same, finally, then
D) Such as, for example, most importantly

A) On the other hand, however, in addition to

These are transition words used to compare things.

When assessing kindergarten students, what would the student show to let the teacher know they have grasped concepts of print?

A) Word-by-word matching in reading
B) How to write familiar words
C) Letter identification
D) Construct meaning from texts

A) Word-by-word matching in reading

In concepts of print assessments, the teacher reads a small book while working with a child. other concepts of print assessments would include the student matching word-by-word matching in reading, book handling skills, locating words in print, distinguishing between the idea of letter and word, the meaning of punctuation, and the other details of print. Concepts of print are the third step of the guided reading assessment procedure.

Which of the following is a strategy that makes use of organizational features in a textbook to aid students in setting a purpose for their reading?

A) Using a glossary to define unfamiliar terms
B) Generating questions from the subheads
C) Using the index to locate information
D) Preview charts and other graphics

B) Generating questions from the subheads

Only choice B helps students set a purpose for reading. Knowing they will have to answer these questions when they are finished with the passage helps students find a specific purpose for reading.

"Later I found my old camera with one picture left I took a picture of my dog and I sent in to my uncle he loves dogs."

A third-grade student wrote the above sentence in his journal. Which of the following teacher actions will most likely help the student improve his writing?

A) Having the student read aloud the journal entry and put appropriate punctuation where needed
B) Providing a list of rules for capitalization that the student can use for reference
C) Suggesting that the student add adjectives to his writing to make it more descriptive
D) Circling misspelled words and having the student use a dictionary to find the correct spellings

A) Having the student read aloud the journal entry and put appropriate punctuation where needed

This would help the student identify the separate sentences contained in this run-on sentence.

A teacher is about to read a story to her Kindergarten class. "Today, our story is about cats. Raise your hand if you know what a cat is. Good. Now, I want you to think about everything you know about cats, then listen as I begin to read the story." The teacher is helping her students to engage in which comprehension strategy?

A) Monitoring comprehension
B) Summarizing
C) Questioning
D) Using prior knowledge

D) Using prior knowledge

Thinking about what is already known about a subject helps readers make connections between the story and their knowledge.

Which of the following would increase effective phonemic awareness instructional skills?

A) Using concrete objects and cues to help teach phonemic awareness
B) Drilling students to promote phonemic awareness skills
C) Introducing phonemic awareness skills one at a time
D) Using work stations to teach phonemic awareness skills

A) Using concrete objects and cues to help teach phonemic awareness

Teachers should consider various dimensions of phonemic awareness instruction when planning and designing learning activities. When teaching effective phonemic awareness development it is helpful to increase the use of concrete objects and cues to represent sounds and to provide more phonemic awareness instruction that also includes familiar letters. Current research suggests that concrete cues can increase the effectiveness of phonemic awareness instruction.

In guided reading, what does the teacher do "during the reading" portion of the guided reading lesson?

A) Prepares an introduction to the story
B) Talks about the whole story
C) Confirms students problem solving attempts and interacts to assist with problem solving at difficulty
D) Assesses the students understanding of what they read

C) Confirms students problem solving attempts and interacts to assist with problem solving at difficulty

During the reading, teacher should listen in and observe the reader's behaviors for evidence of strategies used. Teachers should also interact with individuals to assist with problem solving at difficulty when it is appropriate.

A fourth-grade teacher asks students to use the internet to search for information relating to a science question. Which of the following strategies would best help the students locate the information needed to answer the question?

A) Finding the authorship and copyright information for the website
B) Comparing and contrasting different search engines
C) Identifying key words that can be used for the search
D) Skimming through the information on different websites

C) Identifying key words that can be used for the search

Key words in the question can be used as search terms in a search engine, thereby giving students direction and a strategy to use in answering the questions.

In explicit phonics instruction, which phonics generalization would normally be taught first?

A) Vowel digraphs (ou as in round, ee as in sheet)
B) Short vowels (a as in apple, e as in bed)
C) Consonant clusters (squ as in squid, nk as in sink)
D) Consonant digraphs (th as in think, ch as in which)

B) Short vowels (a as in apple, e as in bed)

Initially teaching short vowels is the best way to teach phonemes to young readers. Learning short vowels first enables students to connect syllables and read longer words. Students who begin with short vowels will encounter vocabulary that is more familiar and they will have more reading material to choose from until they reach multi-syllabic words.

Which of the following is an advantage of utilizing flexible grouping for guided reading instruction?

A) A teacher can collect as much assessment data on students as possible.
B) A teacher is permitted to teach what students need to know.
C) A teacher can increase academic accountability of her students.
D) A teacher develops a better grasp on classroom management.

B) A teacher is permitted to teach what students need to know.

Conducting flexible grouping provides teachers with the opportunity to tailor instruction and address individual needs.

A fourth-grade teacher is developing a writing assignment that she could use to help her students develop use of sensory images, vivid details, figurative language, and the use of active verbs and precise modifiers. Which of the following writing prompts would best help her achieve this?

A) Explain why or why not schools should have sports teams.
B) How are baseball and football similar?
C) Describe the characteristics of a great athlete.
D) Can athletes be considered heroes?

C) Describe the characteristics of a great athlete.

With this prompt, students are being asked to utilize imagery, descriptive words, and vivid language to make their idea of a great athlete come alive for the reader.

Which of the following is a type of informal assessment a teacher can utilize to conduct a reading miscue analysis?

A) A reading portfolio of student samples
B) A computer-assisted program for reading
C) A running record
D) A benchmark assessment

C) A running record

A running record is a type of miscue analysis assessment teacher use to determining what type of reading errors students are making. It also provides teachers with a clear picture of a student's reading strengths and areas of need.

Mrs. Hill sat with one of her students and asked the following questions:
- Can you show me the proper way of holding this book?
- Where is the cover page of this book?
- Can you point to the title of this book?
- Which of these words has a capital letter?

What skill is Mrs. Hill most likely assessing this student on?

A) Concept of word
B) Decoding skills
C) Vocabulary skills
D) Morphological skills

A) Concept of word

All above-mentioned questions relate to the topic of concept of word.

Which of the following is an element of phonemic awareness?

A) Prosody
B) Decoding a word
C) Chunking words
D) Counting phonemes in a word

D) Counting phonemes in a word

Counting phonemes is an element of phonemic awareness along with adding and deleting syllables or sounds and sound substitutions.

Mr. James, a kindergarten teacher, was reading a story to his students. During his read aloud, he asked the students to identify which sound was the same in the words pig, pumpkin, and pail, three objects mentioned int he book. Which phonemic awareness skill was he practicing with his students?

A) Phoneme segmentation
B) Phoneme blending
C) Phoneme identity
D) Phoneme categorization

C) Phoneme identity

Phoneme identity refers to the ability of recognizing the same sound in different words.

A fourth-grade teacher presents the following passage from <i>Tuck Everlasting</i> by Natalie Babbitt to her class as a model of good writing.

"When the tinkling little melody began, Winnie's sobbing slowed. She stood by the stream, her hands still over her face, and listened. Yes, it was the same music she had heard the night before. Somehow it calmed her. It was like a ribbon tying her to familiar things."

Which of the following elements of writing does this passage model?

A) Dialogue
B) Characterization
C) Figurative language
D) Irony

C) Figurative language

"Somehow it calmed her" is an example of personification. "It was like a ribbon tying her to familiar things" is a simile.

Ms. Mattis would like to informally assess her student's directionality skills in order to identify who needs additional practice. Which of the questions can she ask to informally assess this skill?

A) How did you know what that word was?
B) Where do you start reading?
C) Were there enough words as you read it?
D) Did that sound right?

B) Where do you start reading?

The question is ideal for identifying if the student understands that we read text from left to right.

- Discerning the sounds of y.
- Discriminating the speech sounds in words.
- Using written letters to represent speech sounds.
- Distinguishing double vowels, vowel digraphs, and diphthongs.

All of the above mentioned skills are part of which of the following reading components?

A) Phonics
B) Phonological awareness
C) Vocabulary
D) Fluency

A) Phonics

All of the above mentioned tasks are related to phonics. They all relate to the sounds-symbol relationship of becoming a skillful reader.

Which of the following strategies is appropriate for teaching students to automatically recognize sight words, also known as high frequency words?

A) Encouraging students to sound out the word when it is encountered
B) Asking students to make a picture dictionary using those words
C) Inviting students to create new words by adding or deleting sounds
D) Presenting the word visually and asking students to say the words

D) Presenting the word visually and asking students to say the words

This is the very first strategy a teacher utilizes when introducing high frequency words to students.

Which of the following is a step a teacher must take before allowing students to complete a WebQuest on a particular topic?

A) Give students the free access to explore WebQuests websites
B) Share with students a WebQuest completed by older students
C) Prepare students with basic internet skills and internet safety
D) Allow students to select any WebQuest of their choice

C) Prepare students with basic internet skills and internet safety

Preparing students with the appropriate internet skills such as typing a URL, using search engines, manipulating a mouse, following hyperlinks, and internet safety can ensure students begin a WebQuest with the appropriate foundation needed to be successful.

As part of an instructional activity, Ms. Wong asks a student the following: "Listen to these word parts: /c/.../a/.../t/. What is the word?"

This activity will be most challenging for a student who:

A) Has difficulty identifying the number of syllables in words
B) Has difficulty identifying phonemes in words
C) Has difficulty segmenting phonemes in words
D) Has difficulty blending phonemes in words

D) Has difficulty blending phonemes in words

The task would be most difficult for a student who has difficulty blending phonemes into words because the task requires the student to blend the sounds (/c/.../a/.../t/) in order to say the word "cat".

Mr. Perez went to a workshop in his school district and learned about the importance of phonemic awareness for later student reading development. Which of the following teacher prompts might be heard in an instructional game intended to build students phonemic awareness?

A) Listen: I will clap the parts to your name: Jus...tin. How many? (students answer 2)
B) Listen: Hat. Say it with a /b/ at the beginning (students answer bat.)
C) Listen: If you are having fun, draw a _____ (students draw a rhyming word like sun).
D) Listen: Car. What is the last part? (students answer /ar/)

B) Listen: Hat. Say it with a /b/ at the beginning (students answer bat.)

Choice B is an example of phonemic awareness (a specific type of phonological awareness). Students must manipulate individual phonemes in order to be successful with the task.

A Kindergarten teacher reads to students every day during circle time using a "Big book." Which of the following actions would model concepts of print?

A) She points to each word as she reads aloud.
B) She makes predictions about what will come next in the story.
C) She sounds out phonetically regular words.
D) She selects books with alliteration or rhyming patterns.

A) She points to each word as she reads aloud.

Pointing to each word as she reads aloud would model concepts of print by promoting student awareness that text is made up of individual words. It also models other concepts of print: text is read one page at a time, form top to bottom, and left to right.

A second-grade student wrote the following:

"We hav a hamstr. His name iz merfy."
(We have a hamster. His name is Murphy.)

Which of the following strategies would be most helpful in helping this student develop his spelling skills?

A) Expose children to word families, spelling patterns, word structure.
B) Study affixes, root words, and homophones.
C) Develop proofreading skills.
D) Teach letter names with letter forms.

A) Expose children to word families, spelling patterns, word structure.

This student is in the phonetic stage of spelling development and would benefit from this strategy.

When "a" and "i" appear together in a syllable, they usually represent the same sound as

A) the "i" in kite
B) the "a" in car
C) the "a" in case
D) the "a" in cat

C) the "a" in case

The "a" in case represents the long "a" sound. When "a" and "i" appear together in a syllable, they usually represent the long "a" sound.

Mr. Ramirez administers an informal reading inventory to each of the fifth grade students. What information is he not likely to gather from the assessment?

A) Information about the student's attitude toward reading
B) Information about decoding and word analysis strategies the student uses
C) Information about whether the student is monitoring
D) Information about the student's comprehension

A) Information about the student's attitude toward reading

Informal reading inventories do not include a reading attitude assessment.

It is the beginning of the school year and Ms. Alverez wants to obtain some baseline data on her new students' knowledge of concepts about print. Which of the following would not be included in this particular assessment?

A) Left-to-right orientation
B) Cover of the book
C) Word segmentation
D) Recognition of a capital letter

C) Word segmentation

Word segmentation is a component of phonemic awareness, not concepts about print.

A fifth-grade student has multiple print sources about global warming that he must consult for a research project. He must decide which sources would give him the most current information. Which part of the book should he consult?

A) Glossary
B) Charts and tables
C) Copyright page
D) Index

C) Copyright page

The copyright page would tell when the book was published, thereby letting the student know if the information contained was the most current.

A new student from Egypt has just entered Ms. Anderson's third grade class. Based on data from an informal reading inventory, the student is reading on a first grade level. How should Ms. Anderson plan and manage instruction for the new student?

A) Teach the student using third grade texts
B) Speak louder and slower to the student
C) Place the student in the low reading group
D) Use differentiated, individualized instruction

D) Use differentiated, individualized instruction

In order to assist this student who is just learning English, the teacher will need to provide differentiated instruction that has been individualized to meet his needs.

Which of the following phonemic awareness activities would be considered the lowest level of difficulty?

A) Segmentation
B) Blending
C) Rhyming
D) Substitutions/additions/deletions

C) Rhyming

When considering the progression of difficulty in phonemic awareness, students have less difficulty with rhyming than with the other responses.

Mr. Ellis wants to create an environment in his classroom where students can learn about each other's cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Which of the following activities would not support this development?

A) Reading aloud multicultural literature
B) Individual seat work
C) Sharing students' writing
D) Class meeting time

B) Individual seat work

When children are working individually at their seats and not interacting with the teacher and each other, they cannot learn about each other's cultural and linguistic backgrounds.

Which of the following would not be an effective strategy for increasing fluency?

A) Participating in daily independent reading
B) Participating in repeated readings
C) Prompting students to point to each word as they read
D) Participating in readers theater

C) Prompting students to point to each word as they read

Using a finger to point to each word as it is read slows down reading and fluency.

Which one of the following contributes the most to the development of students' vocabulary?

A) Independent reading
B) Explicit phonics instruction
C) Writing word definitions
D) Direct instruction of vocabulary words

A) Independent reading

Research consistently shows that the best way to increase vocabulary is through wide reading. Learning vocabulary by reading is faster than word study and provides students with a more complete knowledge of words.

When teaching students how to use structural analysis to learn new words, which of the following words would best lend itself to this skill?

A) Help
B) Abnormal
C) Maintain
D) Detail

B) Abnormal

Structural analysis is the use of prefixes, suffixes, and root words to understand an unknown word. The word "abnormal" is the only word that has a prefix and a root word, so would be useful in teaching structural analysis

A teacher wants to describe to the class a rule associated with adding a silent "e" to the end of a consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) word. The best approach would be to tell the students that when a silent "e" appears at the end of a CVC word, it cannot be heard but it

A) makes the other vowel have a long sound
B) makes the other vowel and consonant have a blended sound
C) makes the other vowel have a short sound
D) changes the other vowel into a long "e" sound

A) makes the other vowel have a long sound

When e is added to a word with a consonant-vowel-Consonant (CVC) combination, the initial vowel has a long sound. For example, "can" is a CVC word with a short a sound. When i is added to the end, the word becomes "cane" and the a has a long sound.

A first-grade teacher is concerned about several students whose sight vocabulary is very limited. Which of the following would be the most effective strategy for the teacher to use to help the students increase their sight vocabulary?

A) Provide explicit instruction, using think-alouds to improve oral reading fluency
B) Provide explicit instruction in writing words, to improve memorization
C) Provide explicit instruction in letter-sound correlation, to improve phonemic awareness
D) Provide explicit instruction in word study of high-frequency words, to improve oral reading

D) Provide explicit instruction in word study of high-frequency words, to improve oral reading

Explicitly instruction in word study of high-frequency words is the best method for improving oral reading. By instructing the student in learning how to read high-frequency words quickly, the teacher can help the student establish a large repertoire of words that can be read on sight without resorting to phonetic analysis.

Teacher: What is the first sound in van?
Student: The first sound in van is /v/.

The activity above represents which of the following phonemic awareness instructional strategies?

A) Phonemic isolation
B) Phoneme categorization
C) Phoneme blending
D) Phoneme segmentation

A) Phonemic isolation

The student is isolating the initial sound /v/ from the rest of the word. Phonemic isolation requires the recognition of individual sounds within a word, which is what the student is doing in identifying the first sound in "van" as /v/.

A teacher wants to increase student interest in the classroom library. Which of the following strategies would most likely stimulate students to do sustained independent reading?

A) Several times a week the teacher selects different books from the classroom library and reads short passages to the students
B) The teacher selects a favorite book from the classroom library and reads the entire story to the class.
C) The students are allowed to choose any book from the classroom library and then read it aloud to the class.
D) On a monthly basis, students are assigned to read any book they choose and then write a short summary.

A) Several times a week the teacher selects different books from the classroom library and reads short passages to the students

By introducing several books throughout the week to the class, the teacher encourages students' interest in selecting books for independent reading. Since the teacher is reading just a short part of the book, the students will want to read the book to find out the rest of the story.

A fourth-grade teachers is developing a lesson on suffixes in order to enhance students' vocabulary skills. Which of the following sets of words could the teacher use in the lesson as primary examples?

A) Station, motion, nation
B) Comment, ornament, cement
C) Lament, ferment, predicament
D) Detachment, replacement, excitement

D) Detachment, replacement, excitement

The set of words in Choice D are the only words that have a suffix (-ment). A suffix is an affix that is added to the end of a word or stem and that serves to form a new word or that functions as an inflectional ending, such as -ness in "gentleness," -ing in "walking," -s in "sits," and -ment in "detachment." The suffix -ment refers to an action, process, or act of a specified kind, i.e., detachment is the act of detaching. The suffix (-ment) forms nouns ("detachment," "replacement," "excitement") by attaching to verbs ("detach," "replace," "excite").

To promote family involvement in literacy activities, teachers can encourage parents to

A) buy comic books
B) get their child a library card
C) discuss stories and experiences at home
D) volunteer in the school's media center

C) discuss stories and experiences at home

This practice is recommended based upon research by Jim Trelease and the National Institute of Education's Commission on Reading. Buying comic books does not guarantee a child will engage in reading independently. Obtaining a library card does not ensure a child will go to the library and get books to read independently. Although volunteering in the school's media center is a nice practice, volunteering does not promote family involvement in literacy activities.

During a reading lesson, a teacher shows students five cards. Each card contains the picture of an object and the name of the object. The five objects are an igloo, umbrella, egg, octopus, and apple. The students look at each object and say the word for the object. Which of the following vowel sounds is the focus of the lesson?

A) Beginning short vowel sounds
B) Middle short vowel sounds
C) Beginning long vowel sounds
D) Middle long vowel sounds

A) Beginning short vowel sounds

All of the five objects have a short vowel sound at the beginning ("<u>ig</u>loo," "<u>u</u>mbrella," "<u>e</u>gg," "<u>o</u>ctopus," "<u>a</u>pple").

Which of the following best characterizes emergent reader behaviors?

A) A student opens a familiar book and recalls enough of the language and plot to "read" it without actually identifying any of the words.
B) A student has a set of 26 cards with letters of the alphabet on them and stacks them to make a high structure.
C) A student takes turns with a partner to read a chapter in a nonfiction book and then record new information.
D) A student reads independently from a self-selected fiction book for fifteen minutes.

A) A student opens a familiar book and recalls enough of the language and plot to "read" it without actually identifying any of the words.

Emergent readers understand that written language conveys messages. They may pretend to read by turning the pages of a book and invent the story by using pictures and their memory of the story. "Emergent" is the first stage of early literacy development and is followed by "early," "early fluent," and "fluent" stages.

A first-grade teacher has used observations and interviews to develop an informal checklist for one of the students in the class.

(See chart on page 61 of Study Guide)

Which of the following can Emory's teacher accurately conclude about his literacy development from this profile?

A) Emory's level of literacy development indicates that he needs special services.
B) Emory is developing comprehension skills and needs more practice with in-class discussions.
C) Emory has some understanding about print and is beginning to construct meaning from print.
D) Emory has difficulty identifying letters and needs work with cloze activities and predicting strategies.

C) Emory has some understanding about print and is beginning to construct meaning from print.

Emory has some understanding about print and is beginning to construct meaning from print. He consistently knows that print is read from left to right, that print is oral language written down, and what a letter is. He can identify a letter and what a word is, and he can identify a word. In addition, Emory sometimes is aware of environmental print, recognizes some words by sight, can identify letters by name, associates some sounds with letters, and asks questions about letter names, words, and sounds.

Mrs. Richards had the students identify

- Writing audience
- Purpose
- A list of writing topics

Which of the writing stages in Mrs. Richards' class currently working on?

A) Publishing
B) Editing
C) Drafting
D) Prewriting

D) Prewriting

All of the steps are actions taken by a teacher before students begin writing. The remaining steps do not support the drafting stage of writing.

- Sending Classroom Newsletters
- Requesting Classroom Volunteers
- Making Positive Phone Calls Home
- Establishing a Book Loan Program

All of the above mentioned practices show a teacher's support of

A) lesson planning
B) cooperative learning
C) homework
D) parental involvement

D) parental involvement

Classroom newsletters, requesting classroom volunteers, making positive phone calls home, and integrating a book loan program within your classroom all promote parental involvement. The other strategies are effective in the classroom but do not promote parental involvement.

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