US History Chapter 9

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James Madison

Nicknamed "the Father of the Constitution"; talented politician sent to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia on May 25, 1787; his notable contributions to the Constitution helped to convince the public to ratify it.

Alexander Hamilton

High Political leader-1786- 32 year old New Yorker who saved the convention from complete failure by engineering the adoption of his report. It called upon Congress to summon a convention to meet in Philadelphia the next year, not to deal with commerce alone but to bolster the entire fabric of the Articles of Confederation. Congress, issued the call for a convention "for the sole and express purpose of revising" the Articles of Confederation.

Abigail Adams

the wife of second president She attempted to get rights for the "Ladies" from her husband who at the time was on the committee for designing the Declaration of Independence.

Federation

Thomas Jefferson wanted this. The yielding by the states of their sovereignty to a completely new federal government. This would give the states freedom to control their local affairs.

Checks and Balances

the principle of government under which separate branches are employed to prevent actions by the other branches and are induced to share power.The framers of the constitution for the U.S. saw the policy of checks and balances necessary for the government to run smoothly. Third principle has prevented anyone Branch from taking over the government and making all the decisions.

Sovereignty

supreme political power. Power in the peoples hands is the basis for democracy.

Mobocracy

To be ruled by a mob.

REpublicanism

the government was under the authority of the people it governs. The power in the peoples hand's

States' Rights

The anti-federalists opposed the constitution because they thought it did not give enough power to the states. They believed that each state deserved certain rights that were not clearly defined in the constitution but were pertinent in democracy. Since these rights were not included in the original draft of the constitution there was a delay in the ratification process until the states were granted individual powers in an added clause.

Popular sovereignty

the idea that people should have the right to rule themselves. This idea had revolutionary consequences in colonial America.

Confederation

a group of sovereign states, each of which is free to act independently from the others.

Anarchy

a lack of a strong centralized government. Often resulting in chaos, giving no security to landowners or upper-class people (wealthy). There is no stability, and what few laws exist are openly defied with no form of punishment. There are often problems in creating a usable and effective currencythe period of time just prior to the creation of the constitution.

Society of the Cincinnati

Group of Continental Army officers formed a military order in1783. They were criticized for their aristocratic ideals.

Great Compromise

made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house

Articles of Confederation

The first "constitution" governing the Untied States after the Revolution; it was ratified in 1781 and it provided for a "firm league of friendship;" the legislative branch (Congress) had no power to regulate commerce or forcibly collect taxes and there was no national executive or judicial branch

Electoral College

the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president

Land Ordinance of 1785

A red letter law which stated that disputed land the Old Northwest was to be equally divided into townships and sold for federal income; promoted education and ended confusing legal disagreements over land.

"three-fifths compromise"

where a black slave was counted as three-fifths of a person when they were counting the population. The southern states wanted them counted as one whole person for more representatives in the House of Representatives. The northern states did not want them counted at all.

Northwest Ordinance

considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states

Anti-federalists

disagreed with the Constitution because they believed people's rights were being taken away without a Bill of Rights; also did not agree with annual elections and the non-existence of God in the government.

Shay's Rebellion

this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes

Federalists

Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.

"Large-state plan"

It was the plan purposed by Virginia to set up a bi-cameral congress based on population, giving the larger states an advantage. It was first written as a framework for the constitution.

Constitution of the United States

The foundation of our country's national government; was drafted in Philadelphia in 1787;establishes a government with direct authority over all citizens, it defines the powers of the national government, and it establishes protection for the rights of states and of every individual.

The Federalist Papers

a series of articles written in New York newspapers as a source of propaganda for a stronger central government. The articles, written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, were a way for the writers to express their belief that it is better to have a stronger central government. The papers turned out to be a penetrating commentary written on the Constitution.

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