Joints and Body Movements-A&P

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types of joints and classification of joints

Cartilaginous Joint

typically allows a slight degree of movement (amphiarthroses)

Fiberous Joint

Essentially immoveable (synarthroses) joints

Cartiaginous Joint

includes joints between the vertebral bodies and the pubic symphysis

Fiberous Joint

sutures (skull) are the most remembered examples

Cartilaginous Joint

cartilage connects the bony portions

Synovial Joint

have a fibrous articular capsule lined with a synovial membrane surrouding a joint

Synovial Joint

all are freely moveable (diathroses)

Fiberous Joint

bone regions are united by fibrous connective tissue

Synovial Joint

include the hip, knee, and elbow joints

Suture

joint between most SKULL bones

Pivot

joint between the axis and atlas (synovial joint)

Ball & Socket

hip joint (synovial)

Condyloid

joint between forearm bones and wrist

Hinge

elbow (synovial)

Hinge

interphalangeal joints (synovial)

Gliding

intercarpal joints (synovial)

Pivot

joint between the skull and vertebral column

Condyloid

joints between proximal phalanges and metacarpal bones (synovial)

Articular Cartilage

keeps bone ends from crushing when compressed; resilient

Ligaments, fibrous capsule and muscle tendons

resists tension placed on joints

Synovial fluid

lubricant that minimizes friction and abrasion of joint surfaces

Synovial fluid

keeps joints from overheating

Ligaments, fibrous capsule and muscle tendons

helps prevent dislocation

Abduction

away from midline

Adduction

towards midline

Circumduction

"cone"; flexion, extension, abduction, & adduction

Depression

move body part downward

Dorsiflexion

up on heel of foot; toe towards shin

Elevation

move body part upward

Eversion

sole of body part outward

Extension

increase angle @ joint

Flexion

decrease angle @ joint

Gliding

one body part slides past another

Inversion

sole of body part inward

Plantar flexion

sole of foot pushes downward; calf raise

Pronation

opposite of supination; palm down

Protraction

move structure anteriorly

Retraction

move structure interiorly

Rotation

move the bone around its own axis

Supination

anatomical position; palm up (holding soup)

Condyloid

knuckles

Plane

sacroiliac joints

Plane

intercarpal joints

Plane

femoropatellar joint of the knee

Ball & Socket

hip and shoulder joints

Condyloid

radiocarpal

Plane

proximal tibiofibular joint

Saddle

carpometacarpal joint of the thumb

Hinge

Elbow, knee, and interphalangeal joints

Pivot

Joint between C1 and C2

Shoulder

rotator cuff muscles are important in stabilizing this joint; capsule reinforced only anteriorly by ligaments; articular surfaces shallow

Knee

three joints in one; capsule incomplete anteriorly; has menisci and intracapsular cruciate ligaments

Elbow

capsule is loose; reinforced by medial and lateral collateral ligaments; articular surfaces most important in ensuring joint stability

Hip

articular surfaces deep and secure; capsule heavily reinforced by ligaments and muscule tendons; intracapsular liagmentum teres. Extremely stable joint

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