to trade (goods)
rules for the behavior of priests, monks, and nuns
the Eastern Empire that lived on after the western fell
the policy of political and religious power concentrated in the emperors hands.
rules of behavior that filled the void of political authority
consisted of Charles the hammer and Charlemagne
conquered most of mainland western Europe, temporarily unifying it
Germanic ruler from 481-511
plan to resist Turkish troops from invading into the Byzantine Emperors territory
Cyrillic Writing Systems
system of writing formed so the followers could understand what the religious leaders were saying.
banned from catholic church because of misbehaving.
a political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to the king, in exchange for thier loyalty, military service and protection of of the people who live on the land
group of Germanic people who rose to prominence under the leadership of King Clovis
city slum areas inhabited by minority groups living there due to social or economic pressures
in the middle ages, a group of merchants or artisans in one trade or craft, organized to maintain standards of work and to protect the interests of members
Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.
An organization of cities in northern Germany and southern Scandinavia for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance.
an opinion different from accepted belief
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806. (pp. 260, 449)
Hundred Years War
conflict between England and France from 1337 to 1453; fought over lands England possessed in France and feudal rights versus the emerging claims of national states
an ecclesiastical censure by the Roman Catholic Church withdrawing certain sacraments and Christian burial from a person or all persons in a particular district
Early Byzantine Emperor 527-565 "Most Important Emperor"
limits on the power of the ruler/gives nobility and clergy a choice in policy making
a document that nobles forced King John of England to sign that guaranteed rights to the nobility
economic system that defined both economic and political obligations between lords, peasants, and laborers.
period of western European history between 500 and 1500 C.E.
Royal officials under Charlemagne who traveled around the country to enforce the king's laws
anti-Semitic mob actions
Muslim ruler who rebuilt troops to win the crusades
The major political threat to early Byzantine Empire
the attempt to reconcile the beliefs and values of Christianity with the logical reasoning of Greek Philosophy
people who lived on and were tied to agricultural production at manors and estates
Byzantine Empress who tended to hold more influence than her husband while ruling.
interest on a loan
the everyday language someone speaks
raiders from Scandinavia that began in 793