1) It is a non-zero
2) It is a zero that is between two significant figures
3) It is a zero at the end of the number and to the right of the decimal point.
The change in position of an object
A physical measurement that contains directional information
A physical measurement that does not contain directional information
The time rate of change of an object's position.
The time rate of change of the distance traveled by an object
S = ∆d/∆t
Instantaneous velocity (def)
The velocity of an object at one moment in time
Average velocity (def)
The velocity of an object over an extended period of time.
the time rate of change of an object's velocity
a = ∆v/∆t
One- Dimensional Motion Equations
v= v ۪ + a(t)
v² =v ۪ +2a *∆x
∆x = v ۪(t) +½(a) (t)²
Terminal Velocity (def)
The velocity a falling object has when, due to air resistance, its acceleration is reduced to zero. This is the maximum velocity a falling object subject to air resistance can achieve.
Two-dimensional motion (def)
Motion that occurs on a plane
Vector Analysis Equations
Magnitude of A = √Ax² = Ay ²
ø = tan-¹ (Ay/Ax)
Motion that occurs when an object moves in two dimensions but has zero acceleration in one of those dimensions and a constant, non-zero acceleration in the other.
r=[ v ۪² ∙ sin(2ø)]/g
Newton's First Law (The Law of Inertia)
An object in motion (or at rest) will tend to stay in motion (or at rest) until it is acted upon by an outside force.
A force that opposes motion, resulting from the contact of two surfaces.
Newton's Second Law
When an object is acted on by one or more outside forces, the vector sum of those forces is equal to the mass of the object times the resulting acceleration vector.
A measure of how much matter is in an object.
A measure of the strentgh with which gravity pulls on an object.
Acceleration due to gravity
9.8 m/sec² (metric) OR 32 ft/sec² (english)
w = m(g)
A force that results from the contact of two bodies and is perpendicular tot he surface of contact.
Kinetic friction (μk)
Friction that opposes motion once the motion has already started.
Static friction (μs)
Friction that opposes the initiation of motion
Frictional Force (eq)
Newton's Third Law
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
When the sum of the forces acting on an object is equal to zero.
When an object is at rest.
When an object moves with a constant velocity.
The force from a tight string, rope, or chain. This force is directed away from the object to which the string,r ope, or chain is anchored.
T = m∙g
Motion form one point to another which does not involve repeatedly passing the same point in space.
Motion around a central axis such that an object could repeatedly pass th e same point in space relative to that axis.
The length of and imaginary line drawn from the axis of rotation of the point at which the force is being applied.
The tendency of a force to cause rotational acceleration.The magnitude of the torque is equal to the length of the lever arm times the component of the force that is applied perpendicular to it.
τ = F∙ r
The state in which the sum of the torques action on an object is zero.
The force necessary to make an object move in a circle. It is directed towards the center of the circle.
The acceleration caused by centripetal force.
Force centripetal (eq)
Fc = m⋅v² /r
Acceleration, centripetal (eq)
Ac = v² /r
Law of Universal Gravitation
Fg = (G⋅m1⋅m2)/ r²
The attractive force that exists between all objects which have mass.
Universal Gravitational constant
6.67 x 10-¹¹ Newtons ⋅m²/ kg²
The ability to do work
The product of the displacement of an object and the component of the applied force that is parallel to the displacement.
W= F(ll) • ∆x
Potential Energy (def)
Energy that is stored, ready to do work.
Kinetic Energy (def)
Energy in motion
Potential Energy (eq)
Kinetic Energy (eq)
KE = ½ m•v²
The First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy cannot be created or destroyed It can only change form.
Energy associated with the movement (or potential movement) of objects.
Energy associated with the chemical bonds of a molecule.
Energy associated with the motion (or potential motion) of charged particles.
Energy that is transferred from one object to another as a result of a difference in temperature.
The amount of energy expended per second.
P = ∆W/ ∆t
p = m•v
The change in momentum experience by an object
∆p = F• ∆t
Law of Momentum Conservation
When the sum of the forces working on a system is zero, the total momentum in the system cannot change.
The velocity that an object develops in response to launching another object, which is a result of the Law of Momentum Conservation.
The rate at which the position angle of an object changes in rotation motion.
Motion that repeats itself regularly.
The position of an object when there are no net forces action on it.
force, directed toward the system's equilibrium position, which is applied as a result of the system's displacement form equilibrium.
The maximum distance away from equilibrium that an object in periodic motion travels
Simple harmonic motion
Periodic motion whose period is independent of tis amplitude.
In a mass/spring system:
1- the maximum acceleration occurs at each amplitude of the motion.
2- the maximum speed occurs at the equilibrium position
3-the acceleration i s zero at the equilibrium position
4- the speed is zero at each amplitude of the motion
Period in mass/spring system (eq)
T = 2π •√(m/k)
A disturbance that propagates in a medium.
A wave whose propagation is parallel to its oscillation
A wave whose propagation is perpendicular to its oscillation.
f = v/λ
Speed of sound
3.0 x 10^8 m/sec
The Law of Reflection
The angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence
An image formed as a result of extrapolating light beams
Focal point (eq)