Chapter 5 - Principles of Design

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The organization of visual elements in two-dimensional art is called

composition

Which of the following are not among the principles of design

texture and color

Georgia O'Keeffe's Deer's Skull with Pedernal utilizes ________ balance

symmetrical

Drawing attention to an area by contrasting dark and light is one way of demonstrating

emphasis and subordination

Scale is defined as

the size relation of one object to another

The sculptor ________ is known for re-creating ordinary objects on an heroic scale

Claes Oldenburg

Which ancient Roman's writings on architecture related the human body to geometric shapes

Vitruvius

The Parthenon and the Modulor were both designed according to a ratio known as

the golden rectangle

The design principle that is based on repetition is called

rhythm

Of what artist was it said, "At last! A woman on paper!"?

Georgia O'Keeffe

In a two-dimensional work with asymmetrical balance, the appearance of balance is achieved by

distributing visual weight accordingly

Rather than depend solely upon visual unity, an artist will sometimes create __________ unity by unifying the ideas in a work of art

conceptual

In a two-dimensional work of art that is balanced symmetrically, the implied center of gravity is

along the vertical axis down the center of the composition

During his lifetime, __________, son of a banker, received little recognition. Now he has been credited with being a major influence on Picasso, among others

Paul Cézanne

Annette Messager's Mes Voeux and Joseph Cornell's The Hotel Eden both demonstrate the use of

conceptual unity

The ancient Egyptians developed a standard set of proportions used to create images of the "correct" or "perfect" human, as have many cultures both ancient and modern. This set of proportions is called a

squared grid

Georgia O'Keeffe's painting Deer's Skull with Pedernal is a prime example of

symmetrical balance

Pablo Picasso's Girl Before a Mirror is based in symmetrical balance, but the two sides are not identical mirror images. This type of symmetry is sometimes called

relieved symmetry

Because she painted it repeatedly and because she lived out her life there, Georgia O'Keeffe is most closely associated with

New Mexico

Another term for asymmetrical balance is

informal balance

In art, the design principle of balance functions to

A) encourage our active participation in a work.
B) help communicate a work's moods.
C) lead our eyes around a work.
D) help communicate a work's meanings.

Henry Ossawa Tanner's The Banjo Lesson creates emphasis through

A) size and placement of the figures.
B) directional lines of sight leading to a focal point.
C) contrasting values of dark skin against a pale background.
D) elimination of detail and bright colors in the background

_________collaborated with Claes Oldenburg in creating the scultpture "Plantoir

Coosje van Bruggen

Which work of art uses hierarchical scale

A royal altar to the hand

The Ancient Roman architect Vitruvius associated the perfected male form with the perfect geometry of

the circle and square

The twisted, elongated human figures painted by El Greco were based upon the beauty of

a candle flame

The architect Le Corbusier designed the Modulor, a tool he used for calculating human proportions, based upon

the golden section

Paul Klee's Landscape with Yellow Birds and Piet Mondrian's Broadway Boogie Woogie share a strong use of

rhythm

Artists will often add __________ to provide interest and enliven the unity of a work of art

variety

What elements did Piet Mondrian feel were the basic, universal language of human culture

A) rectangular forms
B) horizontal lines
C) vertical lines
D) primary colors

At one time the court painter for King Charles IV of Spain, __________ spent his final years in relative isolation painting a series known as the "Black Paintings."

Francisco de Goya

Annette Messager's Mes Voeux and Joseph Cornell's The Hotel Eden both demonstrate the use of

conceptual unity

The ancient Egyptians developed a standard set of proportions used to create images of the "correct" or "perfect" human, as have many cultures both ancient and modern. This set of proportions is called a

canon

Matisse's The Red Studio is unified by

color

Another name for asymmetrical balance is

informal balance

Many works of art do not have

a focal point

Scale refers to size that is ___________; proportion to size between parts ____________.

normal/of a whole

Unity is a sense of ___________; variety is a sense of ____________.

oneness/difference

The best format to demonstrate radial balance is a

circle

The Guerrilla Girls are women who

are fighting sexism and racism in art

Henri Matisse wanted his art to be viewed as

pure and serene

Ben Jones' In the Spirit is a good illustration of the principle of

unity and variety

The ancient Greeks decided that the ideal proportions belonged to

the golden mean

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