Chapter 7 Anatomy and Physiology

317 terms by harrispaints 

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anatomy

study of structure of an organism

cell

mass of protoplasm; basic unit of structure of all animals and plants

centrosome

area of cell cytoplasm that contains two centrioles; important in reproduction of cell

chromatin

located in nucleus & made of deoxyribonucleic acid and protein.

connective tissue

body tissue that connects, supports or binds body organs

cytoplasm

fluid inside a cell; contains water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals, and salts

dehydration

insufficient amounts of fluid in tissues

edema

swelling; excell amount of fluid in tissues

endoplasmic recticulum

fine network of tubular structures in the cytoplasm of a cell; allows for the transport of materials in and out of the nucleus and aids in the synthesis and storage of protein.

epithelial tissue

tissue that forms the skin and parts of the secreting glands, and that lines the body cavities.

genes

the structures on chromosomes that carry inherited characteristics.

genome

is the total mass of genetic instruction humans inherit from their parents.

golgi apparatus

that structure in the cytoplasm of a cell that produces, stores, and packages secretions for discharge from the cell.

lysosomes

those structures in the cytoplasm of a cell that contain digestive enzymes to digest and destroy old cells, bacteria and foreign matter.

meiosis

the process of cell division that occurs in gametes or sex cells (ovum and spermatozoa)

mitochondria

those structures in a cell that provide energy and are involved in the metabolism of the cell.

mitosis

process of asexual reproduction by which cells divide into two identical cells

muscle tissue

body tissue composed of fibers that produce movement

nerve tissue

body tissue that conducts or transmits impulses throughout the body.

nucleolus

the spherical body in the nucleus of a cell that is important in reproduction of the cell.

nucleus

the structure in a cell that controls cell activities such as growth, metabolism and reproduction

organ

body part made of tissues that have joined together to perform a special function

organelles

structures in the cytoplasm of a cell including the nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes and Golgi apparatus

pathophysiology

study of how disease occurs and the responses of living organisms to disease processes.

pinocytic vessicles

pocketlike folds in the cell membrane that allow large molecules such as proteins and fats to enter the cell.

protoplasm

thick, viscous substance that is the physical basis of all living things

physiology

study of the processes or functions of living organisms

stem cells

have the ability to transform themselves into any of the body's specialized cells and perform many different functions.

system

group of organs and other parts that work together to perform a certain function

tissue

a group of similar cells that join together to perform a particular function.

vacuoles

pouchlike structures found throughout the cytoplasm that have a vacuolar membrane with the same structure as the cell membrane. they are filled with a watery substance, stored food or waste products.

abdominal cavity

is divided into an upper and lower part. The upper contains the stomach, small intestine, most of large intestine, appendix, liver, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen. the lower contains the urinary bladder, reproductive organs and last part of the large intestine.

abdominal regions

divisions of the abdominal cavity

anterior

means before or in front of

body cavities

spaces within the body that contain vital organs. (dorsal/posterior cavity and ventral/anterior cavity)

body planes

are imaginary lines drawn through the body at various parts to separate the body into sections

buccal cavity

for the teeth and tongue

caudal

body parts located near the sacral region of the spinal column (also known as the "tail")

cranial

means body parts located near the head

cranial cavity

contains the brain

distal

body parts distant from the point of reference

dorsal

body parts on the back of the body

dorsal cavity

one long, continuous cavity located on the back of the body, divided into 2 sections (cranial & spinal)

frontal (coronal) plane

divides the body into a front section and a back section.

inferior

body parts below other parts

lateral

body parts away from the midline

medial

body parts close to the midline or plane

midsagittal (median) plane

divides the body into right and left sides

nasal cavity

for the nose structures

orbital cavity

for the eyes

pelvic cavity

(lower abdominal cavity) contains the urinary bladder, the reproductive organs and last part of large intestine

posterior

towards the back; behind

proximal

body parts close to the point of reference

spinal cavity

contains the spinal cord

superior

body parts above other parts

thoracic cavity

is located in the chest and contains the esophagus, trachea, bronchi, lungs, heart and large blood vessels

transverse plane

is a horizontal plane that divides the body into a top half and a bottom half.

ventral

body parts in front of the plane or on the front of the body

ventral cavity

larger than the dorsal cavity. It is separated into 2 distinct cavities by the dome-shaped muscle called the diaphragm.

albino

a person with an absence of color pigments

alopecia

baldness, a permanent loss of hair on the scalp.

constrict

to contract or narrow; to make smaller

crusts

areas of dried pus and blood, commonly called scabs

cyanosis

a bluish discoloration of the skin, lips or nail beds caused by insufficient oxygen

dermis

also called corium or "true skin". has framework of elastic connective tissue and contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves,involuntary muscle, sweat and oil glands and hair follicles.

dilate

enlarge or expand; to make bigger

epidermis

the outermost layer of skin made up of 5 smaller layers by no blood vessels or nerve cells.

erythema

is a reddish color of the skin that can be caused by either burns or a congestion of blood in vessels

integumentary system

or skin, has been called both a membrane, because it covers the body, and an organ because it contains several kinds of tissues.

jaundice

a yellow discoloration of the skin, can indicate bile in the blood as a result of liver or gallbladder disease; or occurs in conjunction with certain diseases that involve destruction of red blood cells

macules

(macular rash) flat spots on the skin, such as freckles

melanin

a brownish black pigment produced in the epidermis by specialized cells called melanocytes

papules

(papular rash) firm, raised areas such as pimples and the eruptions seen in some stages of chickenpox and syphilis

pustules

pus-filled sacs such as those seen in acne, or pimples

sebaceous glands

are oil glands that open onto hair follicles. They produce sebum, an oil that keeps the skin and hair from becoming dry and brittle.

subcutaneous fascia (hypodermis)

the innermost layer of skin. It is made of elastic and fibrous connective tissue and adipose (fatty) tissue and connects skin to underlying muscles.

sudoriferous glands

are sweat glands. They are coiled tubes that extend through the dermis and open on the surface of skin at pores.

ulcer

a deep loss of skin surface that may extend into the dermis; may cause periodic bleeding and the formation of scars

vesicles

blisters, or fluid-filled sacs, such as those seen in chickenpox

wheals

itchy, elevated areas with an irregular shape; hives and insect bites are examples

appendicular skeleton

forms the extremities and is composed of the shoulder girdle, arm bones, pelvic girdle, and leg bones

axial skeleton

forms the trunk of the body and is composed of the skull, spinal column, ribs and breastbone.

carpals

bones of the wrist

clavicles

collarbones

cranium

is the spherical structure that surrounds and protects the brain.

diaphysis

the long shaft or middle section of a long bone

endosteum

is a membrane that lines the medullary canal and keeps the yellow marrow intact. It also produces some bone growth.

epiphysis

the end or head at the extremity of a long bone

femur

thigh bone of the leg; the longest and strongest bone of the body

fibula

slender smaller bone of the lower leg that attaches to the proximal end of the tibia

fontanels

spaces in the cranium that allow for the enlargement of the skull as brain growth occurs. they are made of membrane and cartilage and turn to solid bone at 18 months of age.

foramina

are openings in bones that allow nerves and blood vessels to enter or leave the bone.

humerus

long bone of the upper arm

joints

are areas where two or more bones join together.

ligaments

connective tissue bands which help hold long bones together at joints

medullary canal

is a cavity in the diaphysis filled with yellow marrow

metacarpals

palm of hand; bone on hand between wrist and each finger.

metatarsals

bone of foot between instep and toe

os coxae

hipbone which join with the sacrum on the dorsal part of the body.

patella

kneecap

periosteum

a tough membrane covering out of bone. It contains blood vessels, lymph vessels and osteoblasts, special cells that form new bone tissue.

phalanges

bones of the fingers and toes

red marrow

is found in certain bones, such as the vertebrae, ribs, sternum and cranium, and in the proximal ends of humerus and femur. it produces red blood cells (erythrocytes), platelets (thrombocytes) and some white blood cells (leukocytes)

ribs

or (costae). They attach to the thoracic vertebrae on the dorsal surface of the body.

scapula

shoulder blade or bones

sinuses

are air spaces in the bones of the skull that act as resonating chambers for the voice. They are lined with mucous membranes.

skeletal system

is made of organs called bones. an adult human has 206 bones.

sternum

or breastbone, is the last bone of the axial skeleton

sutures

are areas where the cranial bones have joined together

tarsals

one of seven bones that form the instep of the foot; ankle

tibia

the larger weight-bearing bone between the ankle and the knee commonly called the shin bone

ulna

larger long bone on forearm between wrist and elbow

vertebrae

The 26 bones of the spinal column

yellow marrow

is mainly a storage area for fat cells. It also contains cells that form leukocytes (white blood cells)

radius

long bone on forearm between wrist and elbow

adduction

.moving a body part toward the midline

cardiac muscle

forms the walls of the heart and contracts to circulate blood

circumduction

moving in a circle at a joint or moving one end of a body part in a circle while the other end remains stationary; such as swinging an arm in a circle

contract

to become short; draw together

contractibility

muscle fibers that are stimulated by nerves contract or become short and thick, which causes movement

contracture

a severe tightening of a flexor muscle resulting in bending of a joint.

elasticity

allows muscle to return to its original shape after it has contracted or stretched

excitability

irritability, the ability to respond to a stimulus such as a nerve impulse

extensibility

the ability to be stretched

extension

increasing the angle between two bones, or straightening a body part

fascia

a tough, sheetlike membrane that covers and protects the tissue

flexion

decreasing the angle between two bones, or bending a body part

insertion

end or area of muscle that moves when muscle contracts

involuntary

means function without conscious thought or control

muscle tone

the state of partial contraction providing a state of readiness to act

muscular system

system made up of more than 600 muscles

origin

end or area of a muscle that remains stationary when muscle contracts

rotation

turning a body part around its own axis; such as turning head from side to side

skeletal muscle

attached to bones and causes body movement

tendons

are strong, tough, fibrous connective-tissue cords.

visceral (smooth) muscle

is found in the internal organs of the body, such as those of digestive and respiratory systems, and blood vessels and eyes

voluntary

under one's control

abduction

moving a body part away from the midline

brain

is a mass of nerve tissue well protected by membranes and the cranium, or skull

central nervous system (CNS)

consists of the brain and spinal cord

cerebellum

the section below the back of the cerebrum; responsible for muscle coordination, balance, posture and muscle tone.

cerebrospinal fluid

a clear, colorless fluid in the ventricles of brain. this fluid circulates continually between ventricles and through subarachnoid space. serves as shock absorber to protect brain and spinal cord; also carries nutrients to some parts of brain and spinal cord and helps remove metabolic waste.

cerebrum

the largest and highest section of brain; responsible for reasoning thought, memory, judgment, speech, sensation, sight, smell, hear and voluntary body movement.

diencephalon

the section located between the cerebrum and midbrain; containing two structures - the thalamus and hypothalamus

hypothalamus

regulates and controls the autonomic nervous system, temperature, appetite, water balance, sleep and blood vessel constriction and dilation. It is also involved in emotions such as anger, fear, pleasure, pain and affection

medulla oblongata

the lowest part of the brainstem; connects with the spinal cord and is responsible for regulating heartbeat, respiration, swallowing, coughing and blood pressure

meninges

are three membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord. Dura mater - thick, tough outer layer; arachnoid membrane - middle layer is delicate and weblike, loosely attached to other meninges to allow space for fluid flow between layers; pia mater - innermost layer, is closely attached to brain and spinal cord, contains blood vessels that nourish nerve tissue.

midbrain

the section located below the cerebrum at the top of the brainstem; responsible for conducting impulses between brain parts and for certain eye and auditory reflexes

nerves

are a combination of many nerve fibers located outside the brain and spinal cord.

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