Music can be defined as
an art based on the organization of sounds in time
In general, the smaller the vibrating element, the __________ its pitch.
Tone color is synonymous with __________.
Plucking the string with the finger instead of using a bow is called __________.
Brass instruments did not acquire valves until the middle of the __________ century.
__________ is a standard adopted by manufacturers for interfacing synthesizer equipment.
Melody may be defined as
a series of single notes that add up to a recognizable whole
Harmony refers to
the way chords are constructed and how they follow each other
The sense of relatedness to a central tone is known as __________.
A shift from one key to another within the same composition is called __________.
Musical texture refers to
how many different layers of sound are heard at the same time, what kind of layers of sound are heard (melody or harmony), how layers of sound are related to each other.
Form in music is
the organization of musical ideas in time
Bringing the printed symbols of a page of music to life is the job of the __________.
Most of the conductor's work
is done in the rehearsal
The Renaissance, as a stylistic period in western music, encompassed the years
The Baroque period in western music is usually given as __________.
Classical, as a stylistic period in western music, encompassed the years __________.
The Romantic, as a stylistic period in western music, encompassed the years __________.
In the Middle Ages, most important musicians were __________.
Most medieval music was __________.
is set to sacred Latin texts, retained some elements of the Jewish synagogue, was the official music of the Roman Catholic Church for more than 1,000 years.
Gregorian chant is named after Pope Gregory I, who
is credited by medieval legend with having created it, even though it evolved over many centuries
The French secular songs of the Middle Ages usually dealt with
the Crusades, spinning, love.
An estampie is a medieval __________.
In medieval times, most polyphonic music was created by
placing new melodic lines against known chants
The Notre Dame Mass by Guillaume de Machaut was
the first polyphonic treatment of the mass ordinary by a known composer
The Renaissance may be described as an age of
curiosity and individualism, exploration and adventure, the "rebirth" of human creativity
Renaissance music sounds more "full" than medieval music because
composers considered the harmonic effect of chords rather than superimposing one melody above another, the bass register is used for the first time, the typical choral piece has four, five, or six voice parts of nearly equal
The movement in which the Catholic church sought to correct abuses and malpractices within its structure is known as the __________.
An attempt was made to purify Catholic church music as a result of the
deliberations of the Council of Trent
The Renaissance madrigal is a
piece for several solo voices set to a short poem, usually about love
During the Renaissance, every educated person was expected to
read musical notation, play a musical instrument, be skilled in dance.
A long, sustained tone or tones accompanying a melody is a(n) __________.
The word baroque has, at various times, meant all of the following except
Baroque style flourished in music during the period
The early Baroque was characterized by
The middle Baroque was characterized by
a diffusion of the style into every corner of Europe
Instrumental music became as important as vocal music for the first time in the __________ period.
The compelling drive and energy in Baroque music are usually provided by
repeated rhythmic patterns
Terraced dynamics refers to
the sudden alternation from one dynamic level to another
The orchestra evolved during the Baroque period into a performing group based on instruments of the __________ family.
The music director of a court in the Baroque period
supervised and directed the musical performances, composed much of the music required, was responsible for the discipline of the other musicians.
The position of the composer during the Baroque period was that of a(n)
high-class servant with few personal rights
A polyphonic composition based on one main theme, a cornerstone of Baroque music, is the __________.
A(n) __________ is a play, set to music, sung to orchestral accompaniment, with scenery, costumes, and action.
The __________ is the person who keeps time, indicates expression, cues in musicians, and controls the balance among instruments and voices.
A(n) __________ is an orchestral composition performed before the curtain rises on a dramatic work.
The first opera house in Europe to offer entry to anyone with the price of admission opened in 1637 in
The sonata in the Baroque was a composition in several movements for
one to eight instruments
Baroque trio sonatas usually involve __________ performers.
Vivaldi was famous and influential as a virtuoso
Of Bach's twenty children, __________ went on to become well-known composers.
Bach created masterpieces in every Baroque form except the __________.
A collection of "twice twenty-four" preludes and fugues, one in each major and minor key, basic to the repertoire of keyboard players today, is Bach's
The Well-Tempered Clavier
The French overture has
two sections: slow-fast
A large-scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists, and orchestra, usually set to a narrative biblical text, is called
George Frederic Handel was born in 1685, the same year as __________.
Johann Sebastian Bach
In addition to being a composer and opera impresario, Handel was a virtuoso
The Classical period, as a stylistic period in western art music, roughly encompassed the years
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach and __________ were two of the more important pre-Classical composers.
Johann Christian Bach
The typical orchestra of the Classical period consisted of
strings, pairs of woodwinds, horns, trumpets, and tympani
The prospering middle class in the Classical period sought aristocratic luxuries
theater, literature, music.
Sonata form is used frequently as the form for the __________ movement of a multi-movement work.
A transitional passage that leads to a contrasting section is called a(n) __________.
The three main sections of a sonata-form movement are often followed by a concluding section known as the __________.
The character of the minuet is best described as
stately and dignified
The scherzo differs from the minuet in that it moves more __________.
The rondo may be schematically outlined as __________.
In a pure sense, symphony may be defined as
a musical composition for orchestra, usually in four movements, the greatest Classical-period contribution to orchestral music, an extended, ambitious composition exploiting the expanded range of tone color and dynamics of the Classical orchestra.
Unity is achieved in the Classical symphony partly by the use of the same
key in three of its four movements
A Classical concerto is a three-movement work for
instrumental soloist and orchestra
Classical chamber music is designed
for the intimate setting of a small room
The Classical string quartet is a musical composition for __________.
two violins, a viola, and a cello
Haydn's contract of employment shows that he was considered a skilled
Haydn's duties while in the service of the Esterhazys included
composing all the music requested by his patron, conducting the orchestra of about 25 players, coaching the singers for operatic performances.
By the age of six, Mozart could
play the harpsichord and violin, improvise fugues and write minuets, read music perfectly at sight.
Between the ages of six and fifteen, Mozart
was continually on tour in England and Europe
In composing music, Mozart
composed extended works completely in his mind
Mozart's finest German opera is
The Magic Flute
Mozart's Symphony No. 40
is one of his last three symphonies
The Third Symphony of Beethoven was originally composed to commemorate
the deeds of __________ as an embodiment of heroism and democratic ideals.
was a brilliant pianist, was self-educated and had read widely, but was weak in elementary arithmetic, began to feel the first symptoms of deafness in his late twenties.
We have a record of Beethoven's struggle with his musical material because of his habit of __________.
carrying musical sketchbooks
The musical heir of Haydn and Mozart, Beethoven bridged the __________ and __________ periods.
In Beethoven's music, the coda is
often expanded and serves to develop themes further
Beethoven greatly expanded the __________ section of the sonata-form movement and made it more dramatic.
The Romantic, as a stylistic period in western music, encompassed the years
Which of the following is not a characteristic aspect of Romanticism in literature and painting?
Which of the following is not characteristic of Romanticism in music?
Drawing creative inspiration from the folk songs, dances, and legends of a composer's homeland is
Fascination with national identity also led composers to draw on colorful materials from foreign lands, a trend known as musical __________.
An orchestra toward the end of the Romantic period might include close to __________ musicians.
A slight slowing down or speeding up of the tempo, characteristically employed in the performance of much Romantic music, is __________.
Because of the French Revolution and the __________, many aristocrats could no longer afford to maintain private opera houses, orchestras, and "composers in residence."
The composer whose career was a model for many Romantic composers was __________.
Ludwig van Beethoven
A Romantic composer who earned his living as a touring virtuoso was __________.
The rise of the urban middle class led to the
piano becoming a fixture in every middle-class home, formation of many orchestras and opera groups, development of regular subscription concerts.
A very important musical part of every middle-class home during the Romantic period was the __________.
An art song is a musical composition for __________.
solo voice and piano
Schubert's primary source of income came from his
Robert Schumann founded and edited the New Journal of Music
to promote musical originality and combat the commercial trash that flooded the market
Clara Wieck was
the daughter of Schumann's piano teacher, a virtuoso pianist, Schumann's wife.
Most of Chopin's pieces
are exquisite miniatures
A study piece, designed to help a performer master specific technical difficulties, is known as __________.
Until the age of 36, Liszt toured Europe as a virtuoso __________.
Liszt's piano works are characterized by
an unprecedented range of dynamics, rapid octaves and daring leaps, arpeggios
The symphonic poem, or tone poem, a one-movement orchestral composition based to some extent on literary or pictorial ideas, was created by __________.
Besides his musical achievements, Mendelssohn was a
talented painter, fine writer, brilliant conversationalist in four languages.
Mendelssohn earned an international reputation and rekindled an interest in an earlier composer's music by conducting the first performance of __________
since the aforementioned earlier composer's death.
Bach's St. Matthew Passion
Mendelssohn's Concerto for Violin in E Minor opens with a(n)
soloist, who presents the main theme