Seven Years' War
War fought in Europe, North America, and India between 1756 and 1763, pitting France and its allies against Great Britain and its allies.
The voyage between West Africa and the New World slave colonies.
A series of laws passed mainly in the southern colonies in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries to defend the status of slaves and codify the denial of basic civil rights to them.
Tremendous religious revival in colonial America striking first in the Middle Colonies and New England in the 1740s and then spreading to the southern colonies.
Economic system whereby the government intervenes in the economy for the purpose of increasing national wealth.
Queen Anne's War
American phase (1702-1713) of Europe's War of the Spanish Succession.
King George's War
The third Anglo-French war in North America (1744-1748), part of the European conflict known as the War of the Austrian Succession.
Items produced in the colonies and enumerated in acts of Parliament that could be legally shipped from the colony of origin only to specified locations.
Act passed in 1661 by King Charles II ordering a stop to religious persecution in Massachusetts.
Catholic immigrants to New France.
In the Spanish colonies, the grant to a Spanish settler of a certain number of Indian subjects, who would pay him tribute in goods and labor.
Intellectual movement stressing the importance of reason and the existence of discoverable natural laws.
A combination calendar, astrological guide, and sourcebook of medical advice and farming tips.
Plan adopted in 1662 by New England clergy to deal with the problem of declining church membership, allowing children of baptized parents to be baptized whether or not their parents had experienced conversion.
Members of Puritan churches governed by congregations.
Calvinist Theory of Predestination
Belief that God has predestined certain individuals to be saved and others to be damned.
People who experienced conversion during the revivals of the Great Awakening.
Religious faction that condemned emotional enthusiasm as part of the heresy of believing in a personal and direct relationship with God outside the order of the church.
Benjamin Franklin's Plan of Union
Plan put forward in 1754 calling for an intercolonial union to manage defense and Indian affairs. The plan was rejected by participants at the Albany Congress.
French and Indian War
The last of the Anglo-French colonial wars (1754-1763) and the first in which fighting began in North America. The war ended with France's defeat.
Treaty of Paris
The formal end to British hostilities against France and Spain in February 1763.
Royal Proclamation of 1763
Royal proclamation setting the boundary known as the Proclamation line.
The name used by advocates of colonial resistance to British measures during the 1760s and 1770s.
A complex, changing body of ideas, values, and assumptions, closely related to country ideology, that influenced American political behavior during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Law passed in 1764 to raise revenue in the American colonies. It lowered the duty from 6 pence to 3 pence per gallon on foreign molasses imported into the colonies and increased the restrictions on colonial commerce.
Law passed by parliament in 1765 to raise revenue in America by requiring taxed, stamped paper for legal documents, publications, and playing cards.
The notion that parliamentary members represented the interests of the nation as a whole, not those of the particular district that elected them.
The practice whereby elected representatives normally reside in their districts and are directly responsive to local interests.
A tactical means of putting economic pressure on Britian by refusing to buy its exports to the colonies.
Law passed in 1776 to accompany repeal of the Stamp Act that stated that Parliament had the authority to legislate for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever."
Townshend Revenue Acts
Acts of Parliament, passed in 1767, imposing duties on colonial tea, lead, paint, paper, and glass.
Sons of Liberty
Secret organizations in the colonies formed to oppose the Stamp Act.
After months of increased friction between townspeople and the British troops stationed in the city, on March 5, 1770, British troops fired on American civilians in Boston.
Tea Act of 1773
Act of Parliament that permitted the East India Company to sell through agents in America without paying the duty customarily collected in Britain, thus reducing the retail price.
Boston Tea Party
Incident that occured on December 16, 1773, in which Bostonians, disguised as Indians, destroyed $10,000 worth of tea belonging to the British East India Company in order to prevent payment of the duty on it.
Legislation passed by Parliament in 1774; included the Boston Port Act, the Massachusetts Government Act, the Administration of Justice Act, and the Quartering Act of 1774.
Acts of Parliament requiring colonial legislatures to provide supplies and quarters for the troops stationed in America.
Law passed by Parliament in 1774 that provided an appointed government for Canada, enlarged the boundaries of Quebec, and confirmed the privileges of the Catholic Church.
Committees of Correspondence
Committees formed in Massachusetts and other colonies in the pre-Revolutionary period to keep Americans informed about British measures that would affect the colonies.
First Continental Congress
Meeting of delegates from most of the colonies held in 1774 in response to the Coercive Acts. The Congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, adopted the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, and agreed to establish the Continental Association.
Committee of Safety
Any of the extralegal committees that directed the revolutionary movement and carried on the functions of government at the local level in the period between the breakdown of royal authority and the establishment of regular governments.
Special companies of militia formed in Massachusetts and elsewhere beginning in late 1744.
Declaration of Independence
The document by which the Second Continental Congress announced and justified its decision to renounce the colonies' allegiance to the British government.
Area of Pennsylvania approximately twenty miles northwest of Philadelphia where General George Washington's Continental troops were quartered from December 1777 to June 1778 while British forces occupied Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War.
British colonists who favored independence from Britain.
The regular or professional army authorized by the Second Continental Congress and commanded by General George Washington during the Revolutionary War.
British colonists who opposed independence from Britain.
A derisive term applied to Loyalists in America who supported the king and Parliament just before and during the American Revolution.
United States Constitution
The written document providing for a new central government of the United States.
Articles of Confederation
Written document setting up the loose confederation of states that comprised the first national government of the United States.
Convention of delegates from the colonies that first met to organize resistance to the Intolerable Acts.
Land Ordinance of 1785
Act passed by Congress under the Articles of Confederation that created the grid system of surveys by which all subsequent public land was made available for sale.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Legislation that prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territories and provided the model for the incorporation of future territories into the union as co-equal states.
Bill of Rights
A written summary of inalienable rights and liberties.
Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom
A bill authored by Thomas Jefferson establishing religious freedom in Virginia.
Convention that met in Philadelphia in 1787 and drafted the Constitution of the United States.