Cher Chapter 18

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Endocrine System

In which pair of hormones does the first cause increased secretion of the second?
A) ACTH; cortisol
B) FSH; aldosterone
C) LH; insulin
D) TSH; prolactin

A) ACTH; cortisol

The anterior pituitary gland is also called the
A) adenohypophysis
B) neurohypophysis
C) hypothalamus
D) sella turcica

A) adenohypophysis

Which of the following events could be a result of damage to the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system?
A) decreased secretion of ADH (vasopressin)
B) decreased secretion of oxytocin
C) decreased secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone
D) decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone

C) decreased secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone

Feedback: The hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system carries hormones from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary.

Secretion of many anterior pituitary hormones is controlled by other hormones from the
A) pancreatic islets
B) thyroid gland
C) hypothalamus
D) adrenal gland

C) hypothalamus

Feedback: The anterior pituitary gland is connected to this by a vascular portal system.

Anterior pituitary cells called mammotropes (lactotropes) secrete
A) adrenocorticotropic hormone
B) follicle stimulating hormone
C) growth hormone
D) prolactin

D) prolactin

Feedback: "Lac" means "milk" in Latin.

Which of the following consists of nerve tissue, and is a down growth from the hypothalamus?
A) anterior pituitary
B) adrenal cortex
C) thymus
D) posterior pituitary

D) posterior pituitary

Feedback: It is attached to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum.

From its point of secretion until it reaches its target cells, TRH is found in or passes through which structures?
A) hypothalamus, hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract, posterior pituitary
B) hypothalamus, hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal vessels, anterior pituitary
C) anterior pituitary, vascular system, thyroid gland
D) thyroid gland, vascular system, target organs and tissues

B) hypothalamus, hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal vessels, anterior pituitary

Feedback: TRH stimulates the secretion of TSH.

The sella turcica is the location of which gland?
A) thymus
B) adrenal
C) pineal
D) pituitary

D) pituitary

Feedback: The sella turcica is a depression in the superior surface of the sphenoid bone

The hormone ADH is produced by cells whose bodies are in the ____, but it is actually released or secreted in the _____.
A) anterior pituitary; posterior pituitary
B) hypothalamus; anterior pituitary
C) hypophysis; hypothalamus
D) hypothalamus; posterior pituitary

D) hypothalamus; posterior pituitary

Feedback: ADH travels between these two structures by way of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract.

If the hypothalamus fails to secrete GnRH, the effect would be
A) hyposecretion of pituitary gonadotropins
B) hypersecretion of pituitary gonadotropins
C) hyposecretion of prolactin
D) hypersecretion of oxytocin

A) hyposecretion of pituitary gonadotropins

Osmoreceptor cells in the hypothalamus are involved in the secretion of
A) GH
B) aldosterone
C) ADH
D) ACTH

C) ADH

Feedback: Osmoreceptor cells monitor the relative amounts of water and solutes in the extracellular fluids.

All of the following are functions of the endocrine system except:
A) Regulate blood calcium levels
B) Regulate the heart rate
C) Control the water balance of the body
D) Regulate body temperature

D) Regulate body temperature

Feedback: Body temperature regulation is the function of the Integumentary system.

The releasing and inhibiting hormones are produced by the
A) hypothalamus to control anterior pituitary
B) hypothalamus to control posterior pituitary
C) anterior pituitary
D) posterior pituitary

A) hypothalamus to control anterior pituitary

The term gonadotropins refers to this pair of hormones.

A) FSH and LH

Which hormone is required for ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum?

B) LH

Feedback: LH stands for luteinizing hormone.

Which hormone stimulates its target cells to divide, increases their rate of protein synthesis, decreases their use of glucose and increases their use of fats?
A) cortisol
B) thyrocalcitonin
C) insulin
D) growth hormone

D) growth hormone

Feedback: When cells divide, they make more cells. Protein synthesis would also enlarge cells or create extracellular material between cells. What process requires more or larger cells?

Which stimulus would increase the rate of growth hormone secretion?
A) high blood glucose levels
B) high blood protein levels
C) deep sleep
D) high somatostatin levels

C) deep sleep

Feedback: The root "stasis" means to stop or stand still and could apply to either growth or secretion. Growth hormone increases both blood glucose and blood protein levels.

ADH is also called vasopressin because at high concentrations it causes
A) increased urine output
B) constriction of blood vessels
C) increased potassium secretion by the kidneys
D) decreased sodium retention by the kidneys

B) constriction of blood vessels

Feedback: "Vaso" means vessel.

ADH is secreted in response to
A) overhydration
B) increased volume of the body fluids
C) increased osmotic pressure of the body fluids
D) high blood pressure

C) increased osmotic pressure of the body fluids

Feedback: ADH causes water retention.

Which hormone is sometimes given to women to induce (start) labor?
A) glucagon
B) prolactin
C) progesterone
D) oxytocin

D) oxytocin

Feedback: The name of the drug used to induce labor is pitocin.

The primary action of antidiuretic hormone, also called vasopressin, is to
A) cause a decrease in blood calcium levels.
B) promote the retention of water by the kidneys.
C) increase metabolic rate.
D) stimulate uterine smooth muscle contractions during delivery.

B) promote the retention of water by the kidneys.

Feedback: A diuretic is a drug that increases urine output.

Which of these is NOT a function of one or both of the pituitary gonadotropins?
A) stimulate milk production in the mammary gland
B) stimulate growth of ovarian follicles
C) promote production of sperm cells in the testes
D) stimulate secretion of sex hormones from ovaries and testes

A) stimulate milk production in the mammary gland

A hormone whose target cells are endocrine cells is called
A) autocrine
B) paracrine
C) tropic
D) pheromones

C) tropic

Feedback: Tropic hormones regulate the secretion of hormones from endocrine glands.

All of the following pituitary gland hormones are tropic except
A) ACTH
B) FSH
C) TSH
D) GH

D) GH

Feedback: Target cells for GH are bone cells.

Diabetes insipidus is due to
A) low levels of insulin
B) low levels of glucagon
C) lack of ADH secretion
D) increased production of insulin

C) lack of ADH secretion

Feedback: Symptoms of the disorder include increased production of urine.

GnRH directly stimulates the release of
A) FSH
B) estrogen
C) progesterone
D) testosterone

A) FSH

Elevated levels of which of the following hormones could cause a goiter?
A) FSH
B) thyrocalcitonin
C) glucagon
D) TSH

D) TSH

Feedback: The thyroid gland enlarges when it cannot make enough thyroid hormone or when it is told to make more than is necessary

Hypersecretion of which of the following hormones causes increased metabolic rate, sensitivity to heat, weight loss, and protruding eyes?
A) parathyroid hormone
B) estrogen
C) cortisol
D) thyroid hormone

D) thyroid hormone

Feedback: This hormone is involved in maintaining normal body temperature in cold conditions.

The normal histological structure of which endocrine gland consists of small, spherical structures whose walls are made of one layer of cuboidal cells?
A) thyroid
B) parathyroid
C) adrenal cortex
D) pancreatic islets

A) thyroid

Which hormone is released in response to high blood calcium levels?
A) insulin
B) cortisol
C) calcitonin
D) parathyroid hormone

C) calcitonin

Feedback: This hormone is secreted by the thyroid gland.

Lack of iodine in the diet causes decreased production of which hormone?
A) androgens Feedback: The root "thyro" means shield and refers to the shape of the thyroid cartilage in the front of the larynx.

B) prolactin
C) growth hormone
D) thyroid hormone

D) thyroid hormone

Feedback: In the gland that makes this hormone the follicle cells have an iodine "pump" to remove iodine from the blood.

What is the function of thyroglobulin?
A) It is where thyroid hormone is manufactured.
B) It controls blood calcium levels.
C) It transports thyroid hormones in the blood.
D) It stores lipids and carbohydrates.

A) It is where thyroid hormone is manufactured.

The thyroid gland is located
A) superior to the kidneys
B) inferior to the hypothalamus
C) inferior to the larynx and anterior to the trachea
D) posterior to the stomach

C) inferior to the larynx and anterior to the trachea

Feedback: The root "thyro" means shield and refers to the shape of the thyroid cartilage in the front of the larynx.

Some people are born with extra parathyroid glands. This is most likely to cause
A) high levels of calcium in the urine
B) decreased intestinal uptake of calcium
C) hypocalcemia
D) increased rates of bone resorption and decreased bone density

D) increased rates of bone resorption and decreased bone density

Feedback: Parathyroid hormone raises blood calcium levels by, among other things, taking it away from bone tissue.

Hypoparathyroidism would cause
A) hypocalcemia
B) hypercalcemia
C) increased intestinal calcium absorption
D) increased vitamin D activation

A) hypocalcemia

The final step in the activation of vitamin D occurs in the
A) intestines
B) kidney
C) liver
D) skin

B) kidney

Feedback: The final conversion turns hydroxycholecalciferol into dihydroxycholecalciferol. Provitamin D is converted into vitamin D in the skin by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.

Which of the following statements concerning the effect of hormones on bones is NOT correct?
A) Growth hormone causes growth of bone tissue.
B) Parathyroid hormone increases bone density and bone mass.
C) Thyrocalcitonin inhibits osteoclast activity and stimulates osteoblast activity.
D) Estrogen and androgen stimulate the growth of bone tissue but eventually lead to the cessation of bone growth.

B) Parathyroid hormone increases bone density and bone mass.

Feedback: A hormone that inhibits osteoclasts would cause increased bone density.

Which hormone is correctly matched with the cell type or location from which it is secreted?
A) alpha cell; insulin
B) zona fasciculata; epinephrine
C) parafollicular or extrafollicular cell; thyrocalcitonin
D) supraoptic nucleus; cortisol

C) parafollicular or extrafollicular cell; thyrocalcitonin

Feedback: The thyroid gland consists of many microscopic follicles.

The stimulus for release of PTH is
A) high calcium levels in the blood.
B) low calcium levels in the blood.
C) PRH.
D) nerve stimulation from hypothalamus.

B) low calcium levels in the blood.

Feedback: PTH increases the activity of osteoclasts which breakdown the bone matrix to release calcium.

The primary effect of T3 and T4 is to
A) release calcitonin.
B) stimulate bone growth.
C) increase metabolism.
D) decrease blood glucose levels.

C) increase metabolism.

Feedback: The thyroid hormones affect nearly all cells of the body by increasing metabolism.

Which of these is not involved in regulating blood calcium?
A) thymopoietin
B) thyrocalcitonin
C) parathyroid hormone
D) vitamin D

A) thymopoietin

Which hormone helps with temperature homeostasis by causing increased body heat production in cold weather?
A) growth hormone
B) thyroid hormone
C) thyrocalcitonin
D) ADH

B) thyroid hormone

Feedback: This hormone raises the metabolic rate.

The effect of hyposecretion of thyroid hormone during infancy is
A) normal height but mental retardation
B) very short stature (height) but normal brain development
C) abnormal bone development and irreversible brain damage
D) low metabolic rate, sensitivity to cold, tissue swelling

C) abnormal bone development and irreversible brain damage

Feedback: Although the term is now considered politically incorrect, this condition was once called "cretinism."

Which symptoms would be present in a case of aldosterone hyposecretion?
A) high blood glucose levels
B) low blood calcium levels
C) low metabolic rate
D) low blood sodium and high blood potassium levels

D) low blood sodium and high blood potassium levels

Which endocrine gland is located just superior to the kidney?
A) testes
B) pituitary
C) parathyroid
D) adrenal

D) adrenal

Feedback: "Reno" means "kidney."

The hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla have the same effects as the
A) sympathetic division of the ANS
B) parasympathetic division of the ANS
C) somatic efferent division of the nervous system
D) hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex

A) sympathetic division of the ANS

Feedback: Norepinephrine is secreted by the adrenal cortex and used as a neurotransmitter by postganglionic cells of this part of the nervous system.

Which of these hormones is not secreted by the adrenal cortex?
A) cortisol
B) androgens
C) norepinephrine
D) aldosterone

C) norepinephrine

Which of the following statements is correct concerning the renin/angiotensin/aldosterone system?
A) Cells in the kidney release renin when either blood pressure or blood sodium levels drop.
B) Aldosterone causes the kidney to increase excretion of sodium and indirectly causes a decrease in blood volume.
C) Angiotensin II inhibits the release of aldosterone.
D) Renin directly stimulates the release of aldosterone.

A) Cells in the kidney release renin when either blood pressure or blood sodium levels drop.

Feedback: The renin/angiotensin/aldosterone system eventually leads to increased sodium and water retention.

Which of the following hormones helps to maintain blood glucose levels by stimulating gluconeogenesis?
A) thyroid hormone
B) cortisol
C) insulin
D) aldosterone

B) cortisol

Feedback: Two hormones stimulate gluconeogenesis, and the other one is glucagon.

Which endocrine disorder is correctly matched with its cause?
A) diabetes mellitus - hypersecretion of insulin
B) diabetes insipidus - hypersecretion of ADH
C) Grave's disease - hypersecretion of cortisol
D) Addison's disease - hyposecretion of adrenal cortex hormones

D) Addison's disease - hyposecretion of adrenal cortex hormones

Feedback: People who have this disease secrete higher than normal levels of ACTH. Because increased synthesis of ACTH also produces more MSH, they have more pigment in their skin.

Which hormone is closely associated with the body's response to stress?
A) testosterone
B) cortisol
C) insulin
D) melatonin

B) cortisol

Feedback: ACTH levels are elevated in response to stress.

The innermost layer of adrenal cortex is
A) zona glomerulosa.
B) zona reticularis.
C) zona fasciculate.
D) medulla.

B) zona reticularis.

Feedback: Adrenal cortex is made up of three layers.

The primary effect of mineralocorticoids is
A) decreased blood sodium levels
B) production of dilute urine
C) production of concentrated urine
D) increasing blood potassium levels

C) production of concentrated urine

Feedback: Mineralocorticoids cause increased water reabsorption by the kidneys

The primary stimulus for the release of cortisol is
A) nerve stimulation from hypothalamus
B) ACTH
C) increased blood glucose levels
D) increased levels of sodium in the blood

B) ACTH

Which of the following hormones is NOT secreted by the pancreas?
A) glucagon
B) glucocorticoids
C) insulin
D) somatostatin

B) glucocorticoids

Feedback: Look for a clue to the origin of this hormone in its name.

Which of the following hormones stimulates liver glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and fat breakdown?
A) insulin
B) thyroid hormone
C) ACTH
D) glucagon

D) glucagon

Feedback: Both glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis lead to increased blood glucose levels.

Low blood glucose levels cause an increased secretion of
A) insulin
B) thyrocalcitonin
C) erythropoietin
D) glucagon

D) glucagon

Feedback: You can eliminate two answers by looking at their names and ruling them out.

Which of the following inhibits insulin secretion?
A) hyperglycemia and somatostatin
B) hypoglycemia and somatostatin
C) hypercalcemia and hyperglycemia
D) somatotropin

B) hypoglycemia and somatostatin

Feedback: Hormone secretion may be inhibited by the opposite of the stimulus that causes its secretion.

Which of these organs would be least affected by insulin hyposecretion?
A) resting skeletal muscle
B) brain
C) adipose tissue
D) cardiac muscle

B) brain

Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is usually caused by
A) failure of target cells to respond to insulin
B) hyposecretion of insulin
C) autoimmune destruction of the insulin-secreting cells
D) hypersecretion of insulin

A) failure of target cells to respond to insulin

The presence of ketone bodies in the blood is associated with which endocrine disorder?
A) Grave's disease
B) Cushing's syndrome
C) diabetes mellitus
D) acromegaly

C) diabetes mellitus


Feedback: Ketone bodies are a byproduct of fat metabolism.

Which endocrine imbalance would cause hypoglycemia?
A) hypersecretion of insulin
B) hypersecretion of glucagon
C) hypersecretion of cortisol
D) hypersecretion of growth hormone

A) hypersecretion of insulin

Feedback: Removing glucose from the blood would be one way to cause hypoglycemia.

In which sequence do these cause and effect events occur in someone with diabetes mellitus?
1. Cells cannot absorb glucose.
2. Fat catabolism elevates blood ketone bodies.
3. Ketone bodies cause osmotic diuresis and ketoacidosis.
4. Cells switch to using fat and protein.
A) 1, 4, 2, 3
B) 4, 1, 2, 3
C) 1, 2, 3, 4
D) 1, 2, 4, 3

A) 1, 4, 2, 3

The primary target cells for glucagon are
A) skeletal muscle cells.
B) pancreas.
C) kidneys.
D) liver.

D) liver.

Feedback: Function of glucagons is to promote glycogenolysis, to increase blood glucose levels.

Islets of Langerhans are found in the
A) thyroid gland
B) pancreas
C) hypothalamus
D) adrenal gland

B) pancreas

Feedback: Pancreas are made up of acinar cells and islets of langerhans.

The stimulus for release of insulin is
A) decreased levels of glucose
B) increased levels of glucose
C) hormonal secretion from pituitary
D) neural stimulation from pituitary

B) increased levels of glucose

Immediately after eating lunch at 12 pm, if a blood test is performed one should expect to see an increased level of _________________ nutrient/s in the blood
A) glucose
B) fattyacids
C) amino acids
D) all of the above

D) all of the above

Feedback: Digestive system is breaking down into smaller units.

Three hours after food intake, one can expect the blood to have high levels of all of the following hormones except
A) insulin
B) glucagon
C) epinephrine
D) growth hormone

A) insulin
Feedback: Decreased levels of glucose at this time reduce the secretion of insulin.

Which of the following occurs 1 - 2 hours after a meal?
A) absorption of nutrients from the grastrointestinal tract increases
B) blood glucose levels increase
C) glucagon secretion decreases
D) cortisol secretion increases

D) cortisol secretion increases

Feedback: A few hours after a meal all of the above will decrease except for cortisol.

Which of the following hormones will increase in the blood when glucose levels are high?
A) growth
B) glucagon
C) epinephrine
D) All of the above.

D) All of the above.

Feedback: All of these hormones will increase when blood glucose levels are high.

Which of the following nutrients will commonly be metabolized for energy at the end of a long race?
A) glucose
B) lipids
C) proteins
D) glycogen

B) lipids
Feedback: Lipids are commonly used to make glucose for energy at the end of a long race.

Where are androgens produced in females?
A) hypothalamus
B) adrenal cortex
C) ovary
D) kidney

B) adrenal cortex
Feedback: Androgens continue to be produced in females after menopause.

Mammary glands are targets for which of the following hormone/s?
A) xytocin
B) prolactin
C) progesterone
D) oxytocin and Prolactin

D) oxytocin and Prolactin

Feedback: Correct Answer

The stimulus for the release of reproductive hormones is
A) neural stimulation from hypothalamus
B) FSH and LH from pituitary
C) ovulation
D) sperm production

B) FSH and LH from pituitary
Feedback: Release of reproductive hormones is under the control of pituitary.

The main hormone responsible for maintaining pregnancy is
A) estrogen
B) progesterone
C) relaxin
D) inhibin

B) progesterone
Feedback: Progesterone is secreted by the ovaries and placenta and it maintains the lining of uterus during pregnancy.

Which of the following hormones is not produced by the testes?
A) androgens
B) testosterone
C) relaxin
D) inhibin

C) relaxin
Feedback: Relaxin helps in dilation of cervix to aid in child birth. It is made by the ovaries.

Which of the following statements about melatonin is correct?
A) Melatonin is secreted by the pituitary gland.
B) The secretion of melatonin is controlled by environmental light and dark periods.
C) Melatonin is synthesized from melanocyte stimulating hormone.
D) The secretion of melatonin is stimulated by exposure to light.

B) The secretion of melatonin is controlled by environmental light and dark periods.
Feedback: Melatonin is secreted while we sleep.

Melatonin's functions include
A) controlling the level of skin pigmentation
B) stimulating secretion by the adrenal cortex
C) inhibiting secretion of gonadotropins from the anterior pituitary
D) regulating blood calcium levels

C) inhibiting secretion of gonadotropins from the anterior pituitary
Feedback: Melatonin may suppress reproduction.

The thymus gland secretes a hormone that is involved in the
A) regulation of red blood cell production
B) regulation of the reproductive cycle in females
C) control of metabolism
D) maturation of T lymphocytes

D) maturation of T lymphocytes

Feedback: The thymus gland is part of the lymphatic system.

Which of the following hormones produced in the testes inhibits FSH production by the anterior pituitary?
A) estrogen
B) testosterone
C) inhibin
D) relaxin

C) inhibin
Feedback: Inhibin inhibits FSH production in the anterior pituitary

Which of the following hormones is produced to strengthen the lining of the uterus during pregnancy?
A) estrogen
B) progesterone
C) relaxin
D) testosterone

B) progesterone

Which of the following structures secrete inhibin?
A) testis
B) uterus
C) ovaries
D) Both A and C.

D) Both A and C.

Feedback: Both the testes and ovaries can secrete inhibin.

Which of the following hormones secreted by the pineal body inhibits gonadotropin- releasing hormone?
A) melatonin
B) thymosin
C) arginine vasotocin
D) both A and C

D) both A and C

Feedback: Arginine vasotocin and melatonin inhibit GnRH secretion.

Which of the following is true about melanin secretion?
A) More melatonin is secreted at night.
B) More melatonin is secreted during the day.
C) Melatonin can help regulate sleep cycles.
D) Both A and C.

D) Both A and C.

Feedback: Melatonin is secreted more at night and may affect sleep cycles.

Which of the following is NOT an effect of pineal body secretions?
A) inhibition of reproductive functions
B) help regulation of sleep cycles
C) stimulation of appetite
D) inhibition of GnRH

C) stimulation of appetite
Feedback: Pineal body hormones probably don't affect appetite.

Prostaglandins are also known as
A) eicosanoids
B) endorphins
C) growth factors
D) amines

A) eicosanoids
Feedback: They are derived from a fatty acid.

Prostaglandins are made from
A) amino acids
B) cholesterol
C) a fatty acid
D) glycerol

B) cholesterol
Feedback: Prostaglandin molecules are long carbon chains that have been bent in the middle (hairpin shape) so it looks like they have two arms.

This chemical messenger released by the anterior pituitary is known to have the same effect as opiate drugs and may be involved in regulating functions such as body temperature, food intake and water balance.
A) beta endorphin
B) melatonin
C) lipotropin
D) melanocyte-stimulating hormone

A) beta endorphin

A deficiency of arachidonic acid would cause of a deficiency of
A) endorphins
B) melatonin
C) growth factors
D) prostaglandins

D) prostaglandins

Which of the following changes is not seen with aging?
A) decreased levels of GH
B) decreased melatonin
C) decreased levels of T3 and T4
D) decreased blood glucose levels

D) decreased blood glucose levels

Feedback: No age related change in glucose levels is seen, however one sees age related development of type II diabetes.

Which of the following signals is considered a paracrine signal?
A) arachidonic acid
B) endorphins
C) eicosanoids
D) thromboxanes

B) endorphins
Feedback: Endorpins act as paracrines to modulate pain.

Which of the following molecules bind to morphine to moderate pain?
A) prostoglandin
B) leukotriene
C) enkephalin
D) prostacyclin

C) enkephalin
Feedback: Enkephalin binds to morphine to moderate pain.

Which of the following substances would cause vasodilation and help in producing headaches?
A) prostaglandin
B) endorphin
C) enkephalin
D) arachadonic acid

A) prostaglandin

Which of the following is true concerning hormonal levels in aging?
A) all hormone levels decrease in aging
B) all hormonal levels increase in aging
C) some hormonal levels rise and some fall in aging
D) growth hormone increases in aging

C) some hormonal levels rise and some fall in aging

Which of the following does not decrease with age?
A) reproductive hormones
B) ability to regulate blood sugar levels
C) renin
D) thymosin

B) ability to regulate blood sugar levels
Feedback: Elderly people may still be able to regulate blood sugar levels well.

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