American History

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"lightning war" waged by Germany with tanks and airplanes

blitzkrieg

home vegetable gardens that added to the home food supply

victory gardens

American Japanese prison camps located far from the Pacific Coast

internment camps

trade policy with fighting nations for non-military supplies

cash and carry

Mexican farm laborers brought to the United States to work the fields

braceros

French citizens who secretly fought Nazi control of France

resistance movement

deliberate destruction of an entire ethnic group

genocide

"Night of the Broken Glass"

kristallnacht

Japanese suicide bombers

kamikazes

giving in to some of a competitor's demands

appeasement

Who began the Great Purge?

Joseph Stalin

Under what circumstances did Harry S. Truman become President of the United States?

FDR died

When did Adolf Hitler become Chancellor of Germany?

1933

In what year did Italy invade and conquer Ethiopia?

1936

What was the United States Neutrality Act?

it banned the sale of arms to countries at war

How many years were there between Japan's invasion of Manchuria and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor?

10 years

What event led Japan to invade China in 1937?

the Marco Polo Bridge incident

In what year did World War II begin?

1939

In what year was the Munich Conference held?

1938

Why did President Roosevelt propose the Lend-Lease Program in 1941?

to send aid to the Allies in Europe

What became of Adolf Hitler after the German surrender in 1945?

he committed suicide

When did Hitler invade the Soviet Union?

1941

Where did the D-Day invasion take place in 1944?

France

In what year did the Jews of the Warsaw ghetto rebel?

1943

In addition to the Pacific and Europe, what other region of the world became a battlefield in WWII?

North Africa

When was Mussolini overthrown in Italy?

1943

In what year did the Unites States begin its island-hopping strategy in the Pacific?

1943

In what year did the United States declare war on Japan, Italy, and Germany?

1941

What was the result of the Battle of Midway in 1942?

the U.S. defeated the Japanese

Where did the United States drop atomic bombs?

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

During WWII, many Japanese Americans in California were

rounded up and placed in government internment camps.

During Hitler's rule in Germany, anti-Semitism became the

official government policy.

Which battles turned the tide of war against the Japanese in the Pacific?

Battle of the Coral Sea and Midway

Women made significant contributions to the war effort by

serving as radio operators, mechanics, and pilots.

D-Day marked the

allied invasion of France.

The American decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan

may have prevented thousands of American deaths in the invasion of Japan.

The United States government issued ration cards

to limit the amount of goods individuals could buy.

The government of the Unites States paid for the war effort by

borrowing from banks, issuing war bonds, raising taxes.

To help defeat the Japanese in the Pacific, the Marines experimented with

Navajo code talkers.

In 1936, Hitler and Mussolini joined in what would become known as the ______ between Rome and Berlin.

Axis

Under General Henri-Philippe Pétain, Vichy France adopted a policy of ________ with Hitler's Germany.

collaboration

By 1940, Hitler seemed to be on the verge of destroying the

Allies

Manchuria became a _______ under the authority of the Japanese Empire.

puppet state

The British RAF began to use _________ techniques to target German cities.

carpet bombing

By 1939, the Schutzstaffel, known as the SS, was formed as a secret Nazi police to guard political prisoners in the .

concentration

A pesticide known as Zyklon B proved to be successful in the Nazi

death camps

The Japanese admiral who designed the attack at Pearl Harbor also planned a battle at ________ to defeat the remainder of the American Pacific fleet.

Midway

President Roosevelt authorized the ________ in order to beat the Germans in developing an atomic weapon.

Manhattan project

Thousands of ________ volunteered to fight in the United States military despite their Japanese ancestry.

Nisei

What global economic conditions led to the political and economic turmoil in Stalin's Soviet Union?

Because of its affirmed goals of abolishing most existing governments and creating a worldwide Communist society, the Soviet Union was mainly isolated economically from the rest of the world. On top of that, the world was going through a Great Depression. These unstable ecomonic conditions led to the political and economic turmoil in Stalin's Soviet Union.

How were Fascist dictators able to rise to power in Italy, Germany, and the Soviet Union following WWI?

Following WWI, many people were angry and wanted change in their government. Fascist dictators in Italy, Germany, and the Soviet Union took advantage of this fact. They promised significant, quick change and progress to win peoples approval. In addition, they used violent oppression to silece those who opposed them.

What role did Germany and Italy play in the Spanish Civil War in 1936?

Germany and Italy both provided planes, tanks, and soldiers to the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War. Their aid attracted international attention when Hitler's Condor Legion bombed the northern Spanish town of Guernica into ruins. Attacking on a market day, German pilots incinerated the town center and fired on civilians from the air.

What reaction did Britain have to Germany's invasion of Poland in 1939?

After Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia, British leaders warned him that any further German expansion would risk war. However, ss Germany overran Poland in less than a month, Britain watched helplessly from hundreds of miles away, unable to help Poland in time. After Poland fell, Britain still held back its trooops, fearing tremendous losses.

What advantages did Britain have over Germany in the Battle of Britain?

One advantage that Britain had over Germany was that British soldiers would be fighting from home. The Germans would have to fly over the channel to get there, which meant the fighters had a limited amount of fuel to fight whereas the British fighters would have more fuel and the ability to re-fuel and come back. In addition, Britain had a radar that could detect German planes in the channel.

Why was Japan interested in developing an empire in the Pacific?

One reason Japan was interested in developing an empire in the Pacific was that it needed mass amounts of resources for their rapidly developing country which they didn't have on their mainland. Japan wanted these resources so it could strengthen its military and modernize its economy in order to defend itself. It was also a way to expand Japan's sphere of influence.

How did the United States react to the growing conflict in Europe?

At first, the United States chose neutrality in the conflict in Europe. But as conditions continued to worsen, American opinion shifted even further against the Axis Powers, and the United States focused on providing supplies to Britain. Debate over the American role of the war grew steadily, but it would take nothing short of a direct attack to fully engage the United States in war.

What actions finally caused the United States to join the side of the Allies in WWII?

On the morning of December 7, 1941, Japan attacket Pearl Harbor. Half of the Pacific Fleet lay at anchor in Pearl Harbor, crowded into an area less than three miles square. Japanese planes bombed and strafed the fleet and the airfields nearby, killing and wounding thousands of Americans and destroying military equipment. The next day, Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan, and Congress passed a war resolution.

How did President Roosevelt and Congress prepare the United States for WWII?

In September 1940, in order to prepare the United States' armed forces for the possibility of war, Congress authorized the first peacetime draft in the nation's history. The Selective Training and Service Act required all males aged 21 to 36 to register for military service. President Roosevelt called upon industries to move quickly into the production of wartime goods, and taxes were raised to finance the war.

How were various ethnic groups in the United States affected by the United States involvement in WWII?

To win the war, the United States needed to draw upon all its resources, including its people. For several groups in American society, this need opened up opportunities that had not existed before the war. As a result of new policies preventing discrimiation, African Americans, Mexican Americans, Native Americans, and other ethnic groups had easier times getting jobs and were able to share in some of the war-time prosperity. On the other hand, Japanese Americans suffered official discrimination during the war. As a result of prejudices and fears, the government decided to remove all "aliens" from the West Coast. Japanese Americans were removed from their homes and interned in camps in remote areas far from the coast.

What were the goals of the Allied nations after WWII?

Although not all of the Allied nations agreed on what to do after the war, they all wanted peace and security for their countries. They agreed on the division of Germany into American, British, French, and Soviet occupation zones. They also agreed on the creation of the United Nations, a new international peacekeeping organization, in which members would try to settle their differences peacefully and would promote justice and cooperation in solving international problems.

What differences of opinions did the Soviets and the Americans have about postwar Europe?

Tensions over Poland illustrated the differing views helf by American and Soviet leaders. The United States had fought to bring democracy and economic opportunity to the conquered nations of Europe and hoped to see these goals achieved in the postwar world. However, after losing more than 20 million people during the war and suffering widespread destruction, the Soviet Union was determined to rebuild in ways that would protect its own interests. One way was to establish satellite nations, countries subject to Soviet domination, on the western borders of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union wanted Poland under its control.

Explain how the term Cold War came to be used to describe Soviet/U.S. relations.

The Cold War was so named because it never involved direct military actions. Since both sides possesed nuclear weapons, and because their use would guarantee their mutual destruction, neither side ever made a move. The Cold War was a period of very high tension but little action.

Why did the U.S. advocate the Marshall Plan for the European nations?

The United States wanted, at all costs, to prevent the spread of communism. United States leaders reasoned that the best way to prevent the spread of communism would be to strengthen the economies and societies of needy European countries. The Marshall Plan called for the nations of Europe to draw up a program for economic recovery for the war, and said that the United States would support the program with financial aid.

When did the Soviet Union develop a nuclear weapon and how did this affect the already strained relations with the United States?

The Soviet Union developed a nuclear weapon in 1949. Truman's response to the Soviet atomic threat was to forge ahead with new weaponry to maintain America's nuclear superiority. This turned into an arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union, heightening the tension in an already strained relationship between the two.

How did the U.S. respond to Chinese Communist expansion in Asia?

Many Americans viewed the "loss of China" as a stain on the record of the Truman administration. Members of Congress and others who held this view called for greater efforts to protect the rest of Asia from communism. Some Americans also began to suspect the loyalties of those involved in making military and foreign policy.

What was the U.N. Policy in Korea?

When President Truman brought the issue of North Korean agression to the U.N., the Soviet delegation walked out in protest, and thus could not excercise its veto. The United States gained unanimous approval for resolutions that branded North Korea as an agressor and that called on member states to help defend South Korea and restore peace. The U.N. set up the Unites Nations command and asked the United states to choose the commander of the U.N. forces.

What were the effects of the Korea War in Asia and in the United States?

The Korean War led to a huge increase in military spending in the United States. The military establishment became more powerful as it developed links to the corporate and scientific communities. The Korean War also helped to shape future U.S policy in Asia. Hoping that Japan could help to maintain the balance of power in the Pacific, the United States signed a peace treaty with that nation in September 1951. In addition, the Korean War futher poisoned relations with Communist China, leading to a diplomatic standoff that would last more than 20 years.

How did Senator Joseph McCarthy fuel American fears of a Red Scare?

Communist agression in Korea was already heightening Americans' fear of communism when Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy presented a list of 205 people "who were known to the secretary of state as being members of the Communist Party and who, nevertheless are still working and shaping policy at the State Department." In the Cold War atmosphere of 1950, McCarthy's charged quickly gained support, fueling American fears of a Red Scare.

How did the Soviet launch of the Sputnik create more fear of Communist domination of the world?

The Soviet launch of the Sputnik created a threat to the world. The realization that the rocket used to launch Sputnik could carry a hydrogen bomb to American shores added to American shock and fear. Communist domination of the world was seeming to become a more realistic possibility.

an effort to prohibit further Communist expansion into Europe

containment

U.S., Canadian, and western European plan for mutual defense

NATO

Communist domination and oppression in Europe

iron curtain

the ability to get to the verge of war without getting into actual war

brinksmanship

investigated disloyalty and Communist infiltration in the U.S.

HUAC

efforts to make the U.S. and its allies so militarily powerful that no one would attack

deterrence

carry hydrogen bombs to their targets

ICBM

Hollywood studio effort to suppress actors, writers, and producers suspected of subversive activities

blacklist

mutual military assistance among allies

collective security

discriminated against potential immigrants from Asia, Southern Europe, and Central Europe

McCarran-Walter Act

What was the Eisenhower Doctrine?

a plan to use force to defend Middle Eastern countries against Communist aggression

When was the Warsaw Pact formed?

1955

What did the Truman Doctrine promise?

to support nations resisting Communist aggression

Why did the WWII allies meet in Potsdam in 1945?

plan the post-war world

Who led American anti-Communist activities in the U.S. Congress?

Joseph McCarthy

In what year did the Soviets test their first hydrogen bomb?

1953

How many years passed between the Soviet development of the atomic bomb and the Sputnik launch?

8 years

Who were the United States Presidents during this Cold War period?

Truman, Eisenhower

Why was NATO formed in 1949?

to defend against Communism

In what year were the Rosenbergs executed for spying for the Soviets?

1953

What did Soviet leader Joseph Stalin predict in 1946?

the worldwide triumph of Communism

When did the Communists win control of China?

1949

When did President Roosevelt die?

1945

When did the Truman presidency end?

1953

When was the United Nations founded?

1945

When did the Senate censure Senator McCarthy?

1954

What did the Berlin airlift do?

brought supplies to people trapped in West Berlin

In what year did the Korea War begin?

1950

What evidence shows that the United States feared the rise of Communism?

Eisenhower Doctrine, execution of Rosenbergs, McCarthy investigations

What was the main cause of the Cold War"

Communist control of China and the Soviet atomic weapon tests in 1949.

The U.S. gave aid to war-damaged countries in Europe under the

Marshall Plan

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was designed to

check the aggressive policies of the Soviet Union.

The United States entered the Korean War

without a declaration of war by Congress.

In 1956, the United States supported Egypt's demand that

NATO remove troops from the Suez Canal.

Eisenhower warned Americans about the military-industrial complex because he thought

weapons manufacturers were too powerful

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

A. were executed for supposedly giving the Russians the secret to the atomic bomb.

In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first space satellite, called the

Sputnik I

"Brinkmanship" is associated with

John Foster Dulles.

The Berlin Airlift was designed to

bring needed supplies to the people of West Berlin.

The Korean War was an example of

an effort at containment.

North and South ______ was divided by the 38th parallel.

Korea

Smear tactics were used by _______ to bring suspects before the HUAC on charges of supporting Communism.

Joseph McCarthy

Cited by Congress for contempt, the ________ chose not to respond to the questions of Senator McCarthy.

Hollywood Ten

The Soviet Union established a military defense treaty with the countries of Eastern Europe called the .

Warsaw Pact

The Soviet Union planned to establish _______ on its western borders.

satellite nations

Truman informed Stalin that the U.S had developed an atomic weapon at the

Postdam Conference

An American _____ plane was shot down over Soviet territory in 1960.

U-2

The United States gained unanimous support for its Korea policy in the

United Nations

What new types of business developed following WWII?

Following the war, many blue color jobs of the past had falled to automation. Developments in technology spurred economic growth. Businesses produced hundreds of new products, such as dishwashers and gas powered lawnmowers, aimed at saving the consumer time and money. Televisions, computers, and transistors revolutionized the market. The franchise system became popular businesses such as restaurants, clothing stores, and automobile muffler shops.

What new consumer invention took the nation by storm in the 1950s?

Americans fell in love with television in the 1950s. The technology for television had been developed throughout the late 1920s and 1930s, but then stalled during the war. After World War II, television became enormously popular.

What peacetime applications were discussed for atomic energy?

An entirely new industry, the generation of electrial power through the use of atomic energy, resulted from the research that produced the atomic bomb. Nuclear fission, wihch involves splitting uranium or plutonium atoms, could produce a huge explosion if the reaction occured quickly. But fission, carefully controlled, could also produce heat to generate steam and drive electrical tubines. These peactime applicatios for atomic energy were heavily discussed at the time.

Why did the transistor radio become so popular?

Before the transistor, radios were large models. The transistor radio was small and portable, meaning you could take it anywhere. This was very popular, espescially among the youth.

Why was there a revival of religious interest in the 1950s?

In the 1950s, Americans, who had drifted away from religion in earlier years, flocked back to their churches and synagogues. The renewed interest in religion was a response in part to the Cold War struggle against "godless communism." Some looked to religion to find hope in the face of the threat of nuclear war.

What was the reason that the Taft-Hartley Act was passed?

In the spring of 1946, a railroad strike caused a major disruption in the economy. In response, Congress passed the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947. This would allow the President to declare an 80-day cooling-off period during which strikers had to return to work, in strikes in industries that affected the national interest.

Who was Strom Thurman and what was his platform?

Strom Thurmond was the governor of South Carolina. In 1948, the southern wing of the Democratic Party, Protesting a moderate civil rights plank in the party platform, split off from the main party. These segregationalists formed the States' Rights, or Dixiecrat Party, and nominated Governor J. Strom Thurmond for President.

Explain modern republicanism.

Modern republicanism was President Eisenhower's approach to government. Modern Republicanism called for cutting spending, reducing taxes, and balancing the budget. Also called "dynamic conservatism," Eisenhower intended it to be "conservative when it comes to money, liberal when it comes to human beings."

What is NASA and what were its goals?

The National Aeronatics and Space Administration is an independent agency for space exploration. When the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, many Americans grew concerned that the United States was losing its competitive edge. Others feared a nuclear attack would soon follow. In 1958, the United States government responded be creating NASA. Its goals were to jump-start the United States space program and to gain a competitive edge with the Soviet Union.

How did the federal government fund highway construction in 1956?

the Federal Highway Act

The invention of the transistor was crucial for the development of what other industries?

computers and electronics

What important medical research was conducted in London in 1953

the double-helix model for DNA is formulated

When did the Soviets launch lunar probes?

1959

Who was Dr. Spock?

a pediatrician who published a popular book on child rearing

When were successful tests conducted on a polio vaccine?

1954

When were rock 'n' roll radio shows developed for broadcast?

1951

When was the G.I. Bill passed?

1944

What event in 1957 would signal the beginning of the space race?

the Soviet launch of Sputnik I

In what direction did most of the regional migration of the 1950s occur?

west

When did Congress pass the Taft-Hartley Act?

1947

How many years after the end of WWII did the Soviets launch Sputnik?

12

What singer-guitarist helped develop the Rock 'n' Roll movement?

Chuck Berry

What two laws were passed in 1958 that had an impact on science in the United States?

National Defense Educational Act and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

In which direction did most African Americans migrate in the 1950s?

northeast

What famous sign sat on President Truman's desk in the White House?

"The Buck Stops Here"

Congress passed legislation called the _______ to improve science and math education in U.S. public schools.

National Defense Education Act

The name ______ was given to President Eisenhower's plan to slow the growth of the government and reduce the national budget.

Modern Republicanism

Strikers were forced to return to work under the _____ if the strike interfered with national industries.

Taft-Hartley Act

President _____ became the first presidential candidate to campaign in the all black community of Harlem.

Truman

Truman devised a program called the ______ that was based on the programs of former President Roosevelt.

Fair Deal

Why did many Americans want to change the status of race relations in the United States following WWII?

After the war, the campaign for civil rights began to accelerate. Millions of people believed that the time had come to demand that the nation live up to its creed that all are created equal before the law. Several factors contributed to this growing demand. Among these factors were increased African American migration, the New Deal, World War II, and the rise of the NAACP.

What other minorities began to demand civil rights in the 1960s?

African Americans were not the only minority group to demand equal rights after World War II. Mexican Americans, for example also struggled to achieve equality. Native Americans faced a unique situation when the government adopted a new approach to their situation known as "termination," which sought to eliminate reservations all together. The policy of termination met with resistence, and in time the federal government discarded it.

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