SJS history 9 ch 7 Rise and fall of the Persian Empire

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Has main ideas and concepts and terms from ch 7 section 1

Four ruling dynasties

1. Achaemenids
2. Seleucids
3. Parthians
4. Sasanids

Achaemenids

Ruled 558-330 BC

Seleucids

Ruled 323-383 BC

Parthians

Ruled 247-224 BC

Sasanids

Ruled 224-651 BC

Medes and Persians

1. Migrated from Asia to Iran
2. Lived under Babylonians and Assyrians
3. Lived in clans, no formal institutions
4. Considerable military power
5. Began conquering land when Assyrians and Babylonian rule weakened

Cyrus

1. An Achamenid
2. Reigned 558-530 BC
3. 558 BC - king of Persian tribes
4. 553 BC - overthrew Median overlord
5. 548 BC - ruled all of Iran
6. 546 BC - conquered Lydia
7. 539 BC - ruled Babylonia
8. Ruled from India to Egypt
9. 530 BC - died in battle

Cyrus

Ruled 558-530 BC

Cyrus

Became king of the Persian tribes in 558 BC

Cyrus

Brought Iran under his control in 548 BC

Cyrus

Conquered Lydia in 546 BC

Cyrus

Captured Babylonia in 539 BC

Cyrus

Ruled an empire that stretched from India to Egypt

Cambyses

Cyrus' son who conquered Egypt and brought its wealth into Persia

Cambyses

Conquered Egypt in 525 BC

Cambyses

Ruled 530-522 BC

Cambyses

1. Cyrus' son
2. Ruled 530-522 BC
3. 525 BC - conquered Egypt

Darius

Greatest of Achaemenid emperors

Darius

Ruled 521-486 BC

Darius

Conquered Thrace, India, Macedonia, and the Western coast of the Black Sea

Darius

Ruler who established lines of communication throughout empire and taxed his subjects

Darius

Ruler who centralized his administration by building the capital city of Persepolis

Persepolis

1. Administrative capital of the Achaemenid empire
2. Built by Darius
3. Monument to Achaemenid dynasty

Satrapies

Administrative and taxation districts governed by a satrap

Satrap

Government officials who governed satrapies

Satraps

Each had a contingent of military officers and tax collectors who served as checks on their power

Eyes and ears of the king

New category of officials who were agents who traveled throughout the empire with military forces and conducted surprised audits and collected intelligence reports

Darius

Ruler who regularized tax levies and standardized laws

Darius

Ruler who issued standard currency

Standard currency

This fostered trade throughout the Persian empire

Darius

Ruler who did not impose government laws om subjects, but took local laws and codified them to agree with government laws and regulations

Persian Royal Road

1600 mile road that ran through the Persian empire and had a courier service running on it

Persian Royal Road

Built to connect the empire and the people in it, also used for trade

Darius

Ruler who built roads to improve communication between areas in the empire and to facilitate trade

Darius

1. Ruled 521-486 BC
2. Built capital of Persepolis as a city center and monument to Achaemenid dynasty
3. Established system of satrapies and satraps
4. Established system of imperial spies
5. Regularized tax levies
6. Standardized laws and currency
7. Built Persian Royal Road and improved existing roads
8. Allowed Jews to return to Jerusalem
9. Started construction of qanats

Qanats

Underground canals which led to better agricultural production and population growth

Xerxes

Darius' successor who ruled from 486-465 BC

Xerxes

Ruled from 486-465 BC

Xerxes

Ruler who had bad relations with subjects, especially the Greeks

Darius

Ruler who, in order to put down Greek rebellion, attempted to conquer wealthy major Greek cities, but failed

Greeks

Persian subjects who did not like Darius' Satraps and who fought against the Persians

Persian Wars

Series of battle between the Persians and Greeks which lasted almost 150 years

Alexander

Greek who invaded Persia with a smaller army than Persia and fewer supplies and less sophisticated equipment and won and ended Persian Wars

Alexander

Greek who burned down Persepolis after conquering Persian empire

Alexander

Greek who portrayed himself as a successor of Achaemenids and kept their traditions alive

Alexander

1. Led Greeks in battle against Persians and defeated them
2. Burned down capital of Persepolis
3. Portrayed himself as an Achaemenid successor
4. Kept Achaemenid traditions alive

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