Information Technology 101-200

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Words 101-200

Packet

A ______ is the unit of data that is routed between an origin and a destination on the Internet or any other ______-switched network. When any file (e-mail message, HTML file, Graphics Interchange Format file, Uniform Resource Locator request, and so forth) is sent from one place to another on the Internet, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) layer of TCP/IP divides the file into "chunks" of an efficient size for routing. Each of these packets is separately numbered and includes the Internet address of the destination.

Packet-switched

______-________ describes the type of network in which relatively small units of data called are routed through a network based on the destination address contained within each packet. Breaking communication down into packets allows the same data path to be shared among many users in the network. This type of communication between sender and receiver is known as connectionless (rather than dedicated). Most traffic over the Internet uses packet switching and the Internet is basically a connectionless network.

Router

In packet-switched networks such as the Internet, a ______ is a device or, in some cases, software in a computer, that determines the next network point to which a packet should be forwarded toward its destination. The router is connected to at least two networks and decides which way to send each information packet based on its current understanding of the state of the networks it is connected to.

Secondary Storage

_________ _______ is all addressable data storage that is not currently in the computer's main storage or memory. Synonyms are external storage and auxiliary storage.

server

In information technology, a ______ is a computer program that provides services to other computer programs (and their users) in the same or other computers. The computer that a ______ program runs in is also frequently referred to as a ______ (though it may be used for other purposes as well).

server farm

A ______ ____ is a group of computers acting as servers and housed together in a single location. A ______ ____ is sometimes called a server cluster. A Web ____ ____ can be either (1) a Web site that has more than one server, or (2) an Internet service provider (ISP) that provides Web hosting services using multiple servers.

Switch

In a telecommunications network, a ______ is a device that channels incoming data from any of multiple input ports to the specific output port that will take the data toward its intended destination.

Backbone

A ________ is a larger transmission line that carries data gathered from smaller lines that interconnect with it. 1) At the local level, a ________ is a line or set of lines that local area networks connect to for a wide area network connection or within a local area network to span distances efficiently (for example, between buildings). 2) On the Internet or other wide area network, a ________is a set of paths that local or regional networks connect to for long-distance interconnection. The connection points are known as network nodes or telecommunication data switching exchanges (DSEs).

Bridge

In telecommunication networks, a ______ is a product that connects a local area network (LAN) to another local area network that uses the same protocol.

Extranet

An ________is a private network that uses the Internet protocol and the public telecommunication system to securely share part of a business's information or operations with suppliers, vendors, partners, customers, or other businesses. An ________ can be viewed as part of a company's intranet that is extended to users outside the company.

Gateway

A ________ is a network point that acts as an entrance to another network. On the Internet, a node or stopping point can be either a gateway node or a host (end-point) node.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)

____ is the set of markup symbols or codes inserted in a file intended for display on a World Wide Web browser page.

identity theft

________ _____ is a crime in which an imposter obtains key pieces of personal information, such as Social Security or driver's license numbers, in order to impersonate someone else. The information can be used to obtain credit, merchandise, and services in the name of the victim, or to provide the thief with false credentials. In addition to running up debt, an imposter might provide false identification to police, creating a criminal record or leaving outstanding arrest warrants for the person whose identity has been stolen.

Internet Service Provider (ISP)

An ___ is a company that provides individuals and other companies access to the Internet and other related services such as Web site building and virtual hosting.

Intranet

An________is a private network that is contained within an enterprise. It may consist of many interlinked local area networks and also use leased lines in the wide area network. Typically, an ________ includes connections through one or more gateway computers to the outside Internet. The main purpose of an ________is to share company information and computing resources among employees. An ________ can also be used to facilitate working in groups and for teleconferences.

Java

____ is a programming language expressly designed for use in the distributed environment of the Internet. It was designed to have the "look and feel" of the C++ language, but it is simpler to use than C++ and enforces an object-oriented programming model. ____ can be used to create complete applications that may run on a single computer or be distributed among servers and clients in a network. It can also be used to build a small application module or applet for use as part of a Web page. Applets make it possible for a Web page user to interact with the page.

Point-of-presence (POP)

On the Internet, a ___ is an access point from one place to the rest of the Internet.

search engine

On the Internet, a ______ ______ is a coordinated set of programs that includes: 1) a spider (also called a "crawler" or a "bot") that goes to every page or representative pages on every Web site that wants to be searchable and reads it, using hypertext links on each page to discover and read a site's other pages 2) a program that creates a huge index (sometimes called a "catalog") from the pages that have been read, and 3) a program that receives your search request, compares it to the entries in the index, and returns results to you.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

____ is a TCP/IP protocol used in sending and receiving e-mail.

spyware

________ is any technology that aids in gathering information about a person or organization without their knowledge. On the Internet (where it is sometimes called a spybot or tracking software), ________ is programming that is put in someone's computer to secretly gather information about the user and relay it to advertisers or other interested parties.

usenet

________ is a collection of user-submitted notes or messages on various subjects that are posted to servers on a worldwide network. Each subject collection of posted notes is known as a newsgroup.

client

A ______ is the requesting program or user in a ______/server relationship. For example, the user of a Web browser is effectively making ______requests for pages from servers all over the Web. The browser itself is a ______ in its relationship with the computer that is getting and returning the requested HTML file. The computer handling the request and sending back the HTML file is a server.

Client-server system

______/______ describes the relationship between two computer programs in which one program, the client, makes a service request from another program, the server, which fulfills the request.

ethernet

________ is the most widely-installed local area network (LAN) technology.

File-server system

In the client/server model, a ____ ______is a computer responsible for the central storage and management of data files so that other computers on the same network can access the files.

firewall

A ________ is a set of related programs, located at a network gateway server, that protects the resources of a private network from users from other networks.

Local Area Network (LAN)

A _____ is a group of computers and associated devices that share a common communications line or wireless link and typically share the resources of a single processor or server within a small geographic area (for example, within an office building).

P2P distributed computing

_______ is a communications model in which each party has the same capabilities and either party can initiate a communication session.

token ring

A _____ ____ network is a local area network (LAN) in which all computers are connected in a ring or star topology and a bit- or token-passing scheme is used in order to prevent the collision of data between two computers that want to send messages at the same time.

topology

A ________ (from Greek topos meaning place) is a description of any kind of locality in terms of its layout. In communication networks, a topology is a usually schematic description of the arrangement of a network, including its nodes and connecting lines. There are two ways of defining network geometry: the physical ________ and the logical (or signal) ________.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

A ______ is a geographically dispersed telecommunications network. The term distinguishes a broader telecommunication structure from a local area network.

algorithm

The term _________ is a procedure or formula for solving a problem.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

____ is the primary organization for fostering the development of technology standards in the United States. ____ works with industry groups and is the U.S. member of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

application program

An ________ ________ (sometimes shortened to ________) is any program designed to perform a specific function directly for the user or, in some cases, for another ________ program. Examples of ________ ________ include word processors; database programs; Web browsers; development tools; drawing, paint, and image editing programs; and communication programs.

artificial intelligence

AI or ________ ________ is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. These processes include learning (the acquisition of information and rules for using the information), reasoning (using the rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions), and self-correction.

American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)

_____ is the most common format for text files in computers and on the Internet. In an ASCII file, each alphabetic, numeric, or special character is represented with a 7-bit binary number (a string of seven 0s or 1s). 128 possible characters are defined.

assembler / assembly language

An ________is a program that takes basic computer instructions and converts them into a pattern of bits that the computer's processor can use to perform its basic operations. Some people call these instructions ________language and others use the term assembly language.

assembly language

see "assembler"

batch processing

"In a computer, a _____ job is a program that is assigned to the computer to run without further user interaction. In larger commercial computers or servers, _____ jobs are usually initiated by a system user. Some are defined to run automatically at a certain time.

C

_ is a structured, procedural programming language that has been widely used both for operating systems and applications and that has had a wide following in the academic community. Many versions of Unix-based operating systems are written in _. _has been standardized as part of the Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX).

C++

___is an object-oriented programming (OOP) language that is viewed by many as the best language for creating large-scale applications. ___ is a superset of the _ language.

Common Business Oriented Language (COBOL)

_____ was the first widely-used high-level programming language for business applications. Many payroll, accounting, and other business application programs written in _____ over the past 35 years are still in use and it is possible that there are more existing lines of programming code in _____ than in any other programming language. While the language has been updated over the years, it is generally perceived as out-of-date and _____ programs are generally viewed as legacy applications.

compiler

A ________ is a special program that processes statements written in a particular programming language and turns them into machine language or "code" that a computer's processor uses.

debugging

In computers,__________ is the process of locating and fixing or bypassing bugs (errors) in computer program code or the engineering of a hardware device.

distributed computing

In general, ________ ________ is any computing that involves multiple computers remote from each other that each have a role in a computation problem or information processing.

Disk Operating System (DOS)

___ was the first widely-installed operating system for personal computers.

Formula Translation (FORTRAN)

________ is a third-generation (3GL) programming language that was designed for use by engineers, mathematicians, and other users and creators of scientific algorithms. It has a very succinct and spartan syntax. Today, the C language has largely displaced FORTRAN.

Freeware

________ is programming that is offered at no cost and is a common class of small applications available for downloading and use in most operating systems. Because it may be copyrighted, you may or may not be able to reuse it in programming you are developing.

hypermedia

________, a term derived from hypertext, extends the notion of the hypertext link to include links among any set of multimedia objects, including sound, motion video, and virtual reality. It can also connote a higher level of user/network interactivity than the interactivity already implicit in hypertext.

hypertext

________ is the organization of information units into connected associations that a user can choose to make. An instance of such an association is called a link or ________link.

Input/Output

____/_____, describes any operation, program, or device that transfers data to or from a computer. Typical_/_ devices are printers, hard disks, keyboards, and mouses. In fact, some devices are basically input-only devices (keyboards and mouses); others are primarily output-only devices

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