What is the purpose of a health assessment?
to collect subjective and objective data about a patient to obtain info about his physical, psychological, sociocultural, developmental, and spiritual health
What is subjective data?
information perceived only by the affected person;
what the patient reports
What is objective data?
observable and measurable data that can be seen, heard, or felt by someone other than the person experiencing them;
data the nurse obtains
Name the types of assessments?
What is a comprehensive assessment?
Health history and complete physical
What is a ongoing partial assessment?
Performed at specific intervals focusing on specific health problems
What is a focused assessment?
Performed to assess a specific problem
What is an emergency assessment?
A quick focused assessment in an emergency situation to identify life-threatening problems
How do you prepare the patient and the environment for a health assessment?
Preparing the patient: explanation of health concerns, habits, lifestyle; explain privacy and confidentiality
Preparing the environment: examination room, table, instruments, lighting
Maintain cultural sensitivity
What is health history?
A collection of subjective data that provides a detailed profile of the patient's health status
The primary source of data comes from:
What are the components of health history?
History of Present Health Concerns
Biographical data includes:
Name, address, gender, marital status, occupation, religion, insurance/payment source, healthcare provider
Document the patients chief complaint in the ______ _________ ________.
patient's own words
When obtaining the history of a patient's present health concern, what information do you need to ask for?
What does medical history entail?
Past illness, chronic health problems, treatment received, previous surgery, hospitals
Family history is obtained to establish _______ links.
Habits, alcohol, drugs, typical day, sleep, exercise, resources/support
Physical assessment is a ____________.
A systematic collection of objective data
What equipment is needed for a physical assessment?
Snellen chart (eye chart)
Other: timing device, bp cuff
What are the techniques for assessment?
inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation
Explain the inspection technique.
observations, inspect symmetry, size, color, shape, position, deviations, normal v. abnormal findings
How is the palpation technique performed?
Hands and fingers are used to assess (feel) temperature, turgor, moisture, vibrations, and shape.
What are the 3 palpation techniques and when are they used for assessment?
Dorsum (back) of hand used for temperature assessment.
Palm of hand used to assess vibrations.
Palmar (front) of fingers and finger pads used to assess texture, shape, fluid, size, consistency, and pulsations.
What are the types of palpations?
Light palpation- less than 1 cm/ 0.5 inch
Moderate palpation- 1 to 2 cm/ 0.5 to 0.75 inch
Deep palpation- approximately 2 cm/ 1 inch
Area of ______________is palpated last.
What characteristics can you identify with palpations?
What is the percussion technique?
Striking one object against another to produce sound;
Use your hands
What is the auscultation technique?
Listening to sounds of the body with a stethoscope
What characteristics are identified with auscultations?
What are the general survey components?
Observation of the patient's appearance and behavior
Height and weight