chapter's 1-10 tricky Vocab

25 terms by cactus

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absolute threshold

What is the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus?

action Potential

What is the term for the brief electrical charge that travels down an axon?

chromosomes

What are the threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes?

extinction

What is the term for the diminishing of a conditioned response?

Adrenal glands

What is the pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys that secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine and help arouse the body in times of stress?

Algorithm

What is a methodical, logical rule that guarantees solving a particular problem?

Belief perseverance

what is the clinging of one's initial conceptions after the basis of which they were formed has been discredited?

Binocular cues

What are the depth cues that depend on the use of two eyes such as: retinal disparity and convergence?

Law of effect

What is Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and behaviors followed by an unfavorable consequence will become less likely?

Bottom-up processing

What is the term for analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information?

Brocca's area

What is the area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech?

Control condition

What is the condition in an experiment that contrasts with the experimental treatment and serves as a comparison?

Circadian rhythm

What are the regular bodily rhythms (i.e., temperature, wakefulness) that occur in a 24-hour cycle?

Cones

What are the receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina that function in daylight and detect fine detail and color

Conservation

What is Piaget's concept that properties such as volume remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects?

Accommodation

What is adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information?

Correlation coefficient

What is a statistical measure that indicates the extent to which two factors vary together and thus how well one factor predicts the other?

Cross-Sectional Study

What is the study in which people of different ages are compared with one another?

Crystallized intelligence

What is one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills that tends to increase with age?

Medulla

What is the base of the brainstem that controls heart rate and breathing?

Delta Waves

What is the name for the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep?

Dependant Variable

What is the experimentalental factor that is being measured and that may change in response to the manipulations of the experimenter?

double blind procedure

What is an experimental procedure in which both the subject and the researcher are ignorant about who is getting the treatment or the placebo?

explicit memory

What is the memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare?

false consensus effect

What is the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behavior?

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