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Addition Rule

For mutually exclusive "OR" events, you add the probabilities

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Multiplication Rule

For independent "AND" events multiply the probabilities

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Allele

alternative forms of a particular gene that are present at a single locus.

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Alelle Frequency

the proportion of a specific allele relative to all other alleles in a population

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Genotype frequency

The proportion of a specific genotype relative to all other genotypes in a population

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Phenotype frequency

The proportion of a specific phenotype relative to all other phenotypes in a population

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p+q=1

For two alleles, present in a population, the relative frequencies are equal to 1

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Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium Conditions

Random Mating, Infinitely large population, No mutation, No migration into or out of the population, No selection for either trait

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Assortative Mating

like mating with like, where partners select each other based on a shared trait or characteristic

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Consanguineous mating

matings between closely related individuals

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Fixative Genes Can Lead to

Small Population Size

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Random Genetic Drift

allele frequencies in a population change from one generation to the next due purely to chance

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Founder effect

Specific alleles that are more rare, become not as rare

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Bottleneck

deleterious alleles are amplified, when a population decreases then reproduces again

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Dunker Blood type

example of Founder effect

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Selection

Differences in reproductive or Genetic Fitness

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Heterozygote advantage

Hemoglobin S allele confers resistance to malaria

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CFTR

heterozygote resistant to diarrheal disease

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HEXA

heterozygote resistant to tuberculosis

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PAH

heterozygote resistant to abortion caused by fungus

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Gene Flow

Migration, slow diffusion of alleles across a racial or geographical boundary

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q^2

the freq. of homozygotes for the a allele

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p^2

the freq. of homozygotes for the A allele

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2pq

the freq. of heterozygotes

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Disease Frequency= (for autosomal recessive)

q^2

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Females allele frequency of X-linked genes; genotype frequency

p+q=1; p^2+2pq+q^2=1

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Males genotype frequency for X-linked traits; allele frequency

p + q=1; p+q=1

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Fitness

the measure of the number of offspring of affected persons who survive to reproductive age. Ranges from 0-1

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Coefficient of Selection

1-f, or s

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Autosomal dominant traits (mutations equation)

u= sq or u=(1-f)q

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X-linked recessive if the phenotype is benign

u=sq/3 or u= (1-f)q/3

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x-linked genetic lethality, where mutation causes a very deleterious phenotype

1/3 of all copies of mutant allele will be lost in each generation

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Coefficient of relationship (def.)

a measure of the proportion of genes shared by two related individuals as a result of their genetic relationship

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Coefficient of relationship (equation)

1/2^n

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Coefficient of Inbreeding (def)

a masure of the probability that a person has received both alleles of a gene from a common ancestor

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Coefficient of Inbreeding (equation)

1/2*1/2^n= 1/2^(n+1)

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Mutually exclusive

either one outcome or the other will occur

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Independent

when the probability of one event does NOT effect the probability of another event's occurrence

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Prior probability

The initial probability of an event

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Conditional probabilities

probabilities determined by observations or posterior information

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Joint probability

probability resulting from multiplication of the prior probability with each appropriate conditional probability

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Posterior Probability

Probability resulting from dividing the joint probability for each event, by the sum of the joint probabilities

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Autosomal dominance risk for passing on mutant allele to offspring

1/2

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Example of delayed onset disease

huntington's

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Autosomal recessive risk for passing on mutant allele to offspring

1/4

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Autosomal recessive risk for producing children that are heterozygous

2/3

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For sex linked recessive traits, affected males...

daughters will all be carriers

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Carrier mothers of sex-linked recessive traits

1/2 of sons will be affected

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