Organic Chemistry

67 terms by ayeshahas

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Formaldehyde

methanal

Chloroform

trichloromethane

Cracking

bond fission

when there is a double and triple bond

1 carbon is numbered by double bond

Homologous series

same type of organic molecule

Chain isomer

skeletal isomer when difference in structure of chain

Position isomer

Difference in position of he same functional group

Metamerism

unequal distribution of C around functional group

Tautomerism

Shifting of proton

Cis

functional group on same side

trans

functional group on different side

Fredrick Wohler

Produced Urea from ammonium cyanate

Thermal cracking

breaking of chains at high temperature

Catalytic cracking

Higher carbons cracked at lower pressure and temperature by using a catalyst

Catalyst used in Catalytic Cracking

SiO2 Al2O3 produces gas

Steam cracking

lower unsaturated hydrocarbons

Sabatier Sendren

Alkenes or Alkynes Hydrogenated catalyzed by Ni forms Alkanes

When Alkyl Hallides react with Zn they form

Alkanes

Alkyl Hallides reaction catalyzed by

aqueous acid

Decarboxilation of Monocarboxylic acid

When Na salts of fatty acids are heated with soda lime: produced by soaking CaO with caustic soda and drying the solution loose Co2 and form alkane

Clemmensen or Wolfe Kishner reduction

Alkanes formed from Ketones or Aldehydes

Clemmesen

Ketone reduced catalyzed by Zn-Hg/HCl

Wolfe Kishner

Aldehyde reduced by N2H4/KOH

Grignard reagent

MgBrR reacted with H2O produces Alkane

Catalytic oxidation of Alkane

catalyzed by Cu

Oxidation of Alkane

1st produces Alchohol then Formaldehyde then fomic acid then CO2 H2O

Nitration of Alkane

CH4+HONO2→CH3NO2+H2O

Halogenation of Alkane

happens in 3 steps due to UV light

Olefins

Alkenes

Dehydrohalogentaion of an alkyl hallide

produces Alkenes
Catalayzed by KOH or alchohol

Dehydration of alcohol

Forms Alkenes catalyzed Al2O3 or H2SO4 and H3PO4

Dehalogenation of Vicinal Dihallides

Alkenes produced Catalzed by Zinc Dust and anhydrous solvent

Partial hydrogenation of Alkynes

produces cis and trans Alkenes

Partial hydrogenation of Alkyne produces Cis when catalysed with

Pd(BaSO4)

Partial hydrogenation of Alkyne produces Cis when catalyzed with

Na liquid or NH3

Markowinovs rule

governs halogenation of Alkenes

Alkene+Sulphuric Acid

produces ether when heated forms alcohol

When HOX added to Alkene

Haloalchohol formed

Epoxide

H2C-CH2
I
O

Epoxide formed

Alkene and O passed over silver oxide

Gringard Reagent

MgBrCh3

Baeyers Reagent

1% KMnO4

Vicinal Gylcols

H2COH-CH2OH

Vicinal Glycols

formed when alkenes react with mild oxidizing reagent

Combustion of Alkenes

more direct than Alkanes

Acetalyne

C2H2 or ethene
only alkyne with odor

Alkenes

do have smells

Lindards catalyst

used in partial hydration of alkynes

Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

chain

4n+2e

aromatic hydrocarbon

Amine

basic

alkyne

acidic

Used in reforming

(C2H5)4 Pb TEL

Octane number of 1

isooctane

Used in dehydration of alcohols to form alkenes

H2HSO4
AlO
3PO4

Used to dehalogenate trihallides to for alkynes

Zn+ or Mg+ active metals

Used to Dehydorhallogenate to form alkenes and alkynes

KOH, alcohol, or bases

Used in decarboxillalation to form alkanes

CaO

Used to make alkanes from ketones

HCl or Zn/Hg

used to make alkanes from aldehydes

KOH or N2H4

used to make alkanes from grignsrd reagents

ether

catalyzes the hydrogenation of alkalynes to produce alkalenes

linards reagent

used for catalytic combustion of alkanes

Cu

Used in the dehalogenation of tetrahallides

alcohol

catalyzes hallogenation

CCl4

used to oxidize alkenes

AgO

oxidizes alkynes

KMnO4

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