Genoese sea captain who sailed from Spain in 1492 to find another trade route to India. Took three ships the Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria. On October 1492, made it to the Carribean but he thought it was the East Indes. Went on 3 more voyages and colonized parts of the Carribean. (Italian but sailed for Spanish)
lands that are controlled by another nation
In 1519, he landed in Mexico with other men known as conquistadors. He heard of a nation of great wealth. He and his force of 600 reached the capital of this empire in 1520 and met their leader Montezuma II. He and his men attacked this empire, the Aztec Empire, in late spring of 1520 but were driven out in summer of that year. Later, he mounted another attack and finally colonizes the land. (Spanish)
Spanish explorers who conquered land
Where: Peru When: 1532 What: Conquered Incan empire South America. Met the Incan ruler Atahualpa near Cajamarca and kidnapped Atahualpa. Atahualpa gave offer, was accepted but then they murdered him. They then reached the capital in 1533. and conquered it without struggle (Spanish)
Leader of the Incan nation in Peru. Was conquered by Francisco Pizzaro in 1533, was killed also.
mixed Spanish and Native American Population
Native Americans forced to work for the Spanish within this system.
France's colonial empire in North America
The first English settlement in America established in 1607 by a company from London
A group that in 1620 founded a 2nd colony called Plymouth in America. They founded it based on their religious beliefs.
Another English group that founded a colony in America in 1630 based on religious beliefs.
Dutch West India Company's holdings were known. Also had a holding at Fort Orange (Albany)
French and Indian War
in 1754 -1763, the french and the indians fought the British for the control of the Ohio Valley George Washington fought with the British and he, the british won. They seized the eastern half of North America. Its significant because the British won over a lot of land which increased their power.
A Native American ruler who led, in 1675, a rebellion against English colonies. The war lasted for a year until eventually the colonists won. (known as King Phillip)
Atlantic slave trade
the buying and selling of Africans in the Americas became a large enterprise
The trade route that goes from europe to africa with gold, goods, and guns which are then exchanged for captured african slaves which were then taken across the atlantic and sold, the merchants bought sugar, coffee, tobacco, rum sold it back to Europe
The voyage that brought Africans to the West Indies and later to North and South America
the global transfer of foods, plants, animals during the colonization of the Americas.
an economic system based on private ownership and the investment of resources, for profit
joint stock company
A company where people combine their wealth to support a cause
a theory that suggests that a country's power depended mostly on its wealth
favorable balance of trade
a way to increase a country's power by selling more goods than the country buys
a wealthy empire in the Americas that was taken over by Cortes and his force of 600. Their leader was Montuzuma II at the time.
The leader of the Aztec empire that was taken over in 1521 by Cortes. They welcomed Cortes at first as a g-d, then Cortes turned on them and killed him.
Dutch in North America
In 1609, a nation searched for a northwest sea route to Asia but did not find one. Later, they claimed the regions that they had explored. They established trading routes with the Iroquois and in 1621 they granted permission for a company to establish a colony.
founded Montreal and the St. Lawrence river in 1534 (french)n 1534, Frenchman Jacques Cartier founded the St. Lawrence river in North America. He followed it until he reached a mountain and he called it Mont Real.
In 1608, Samuel de Champlain sailed up the St. Lawrence river with 32 men and founded a colony which would become the base of France's colonial empire, New France.
Samuel de Champlain
this frenchman sailed up the St. Lawrence and founded a Quebec which would become the base of France's colonial empire
The Europeans traded goods for African Prisoners of War to kings, and used these people as slaves. Soon Europeans began only kidnapping people
In 1609, english man who explored for dutch, he searched for a northwest route to asia. He did not find a route but he found three waterways (River, Bay, Strait) which would soon be named after him.
a state where Plymouth and another colony was created by two groups who wanted religious freedom.
a colony set up by the Pilgrims in Massachusetts
Bartoleme de Las Casas
a dominican monk who suggested using African Americas as slaves instead of native people
1500's, an Italien in the service of Portugal who traveled to the eastern coast of south america, he claimed that the land was the not asia but a "new world"
1519, Portuguese explorer who sailed around the southern end of south america and into the Pacific Ocean. He also reached the Philippines, while battling the people he was killed in the battle. After his battle hald of his crew were the first people to sail around the world.
a spanish explorer who walked through modern day Panama and the first European to see the Pacific Ocean
a native aztec woman that translated for Cortes and she was the one who helped other tribes to join Cortes
an empire in South America who had a lot of gold and silver and Pizarro conquers
the capital of the Ican Empire that was conquered by Pizarro
Spanish settlers that came to the americas, mostly men
Ponce de Leon
a Spanish explorer who docked on the coast of Florida and claimed it for Spain
a spanish explorer who led an expedition in the southern US, was searching for gold but did not find any so instead he was converting the people there
site in the crows nest and Colombus said who ever sees land first will be rewarded and he saw it first but was never rewarded
a Portuguese explorer that claimed Brazil for Portugal
a bridge connecting (city) island to land
the capital of the Aztec Empire
the german map maker, named the continent America after Amerigo Vespucci
Giovanni de Verrazano
an italien explorer who sailed for france, sailed to North America looking for a sea route to the Pacific didnt find it but founded New York Harbor
Sieur de la salle
a french explorer who explored the lower mississpi, he claimed the entire river valley for france and named it Louisiana in honor of King Louis 14th of France
Marquette and Joilet
Marquette was a french jesuit priest and Joilet was a trader together they explored the great lakes and the upper missippi river.
Duke of York
the brother of the English king, Charles II. Charles II gave the him permission to drive out the Dutch and he did. Claimed the colony Atlantic Coast for England and named it New York.
a tribe of Native Americans that attacked the English colonial villages around Jamestown. The colonists struck back and killed hundreds of them
the land that england claimed on the northeastern coast of North America that became the 6 states of New England : 1. Connecticut 2. Rhode Island 3. Vermont 4. Massachusetts 5. New Hampshire 6. Maine
he was the king of the Kongo region who took over while the slave trade was happening
King Affonso's letter to the King of Portugal
He wrote this letter in 1526 because instead of the African rulers and the Portuguese working together to give slaves to them the Portuguese just came and started kidnapping his people. The letter said that he wanted to come up with a better system because when they were caught they would threaten my people. The portuguese king never responded even though the letter was written in Portuguese. (learned it from Christian missionaries)
(named after Columbus) the global transfer of food, plants, animals, and diseases during the colonization of the Americas. The exchange was went both ways. The americas introduced corn and potatoes to Europe and it was easy to grow and was nutritious (european population grew from these crops) Also the diseases that Europeans brought killed a lot of Native Americans
Advantages of Africans
1. built up immunity from European diseases 2. they new how to crop and they could be taught plantation work 3. did not know land so they werent as likely to escape 4. they were easy to identify because of their skin color
large fields in the Americas where the slaves grew crops
Needs for Slaves
Southern colonies of Americas depended on slavery to crop their crops and north did not use them because was mostly industries
Ways that the African slaves rebelled
1. ran away 2. staged rebellions ex. the Stono Rebellion in North Carolina (fought the Europeans) 3. made themselves less productive by working slowly, breaking tools, or uprooting plants (killing plants)
global trade made merchants wealthy and created new jobs, also capitalism grew because no longer were governments wealthy but so were the people. With the money they could explore new places.
1300's, rats had dieses that soon got caught on to people and 1/3 of the European population died
a political theory advocating state ownership of industry
everyone works and they give money to government and the government can choose what they want to do with it
founder of modern communism , wrote the communist manifesto
English Civil War
1640's., cavaliers supported king vs roundheads support for parliment, Roundheads won and the system became the parliment
Columbus sailed the ocean blue
First enslaved Africans arrive in the Americas
Cortes conquers the Aztec empire
Pizarro conquers the Incan Empire
English found Jamestown
English found Plymouth
the British win the french and indian war