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These are the laboratory values presented in class

Mean Platelet Value (MPV) normal range

150,000 - 400,000 units

What significant are platelets used for.

They promote blood clotting

Critical Values for MPV what is associated with these values.

Low: <50,000; Thrombocytopenia, no clotting of the blood. Means a person is pron to bleeding
Extremely Low: <20,000 check for spontaneous bleeding

High: >100,000; Polycythemia Vera, increased clotting causing DVT, possibility for strokes, and other abnormalities that are associated with clotting

Hemoglobin (Hb) what is it; normal ranges

Hb, protein that is an oxygen carrying component of RBC
Males: 14-18
Females: 12-16

Critical Values of Hgb

<10 Hb - signifies possible anemia
8 - worried
6 is critically low

>18 is critically high. Thicker blood viscosity.

In terms of signs and symptoms what does low Hgb do?

Low Hgb means low oxygen levels in the blood. May be signified by a low SP02, dizziness, pale skin (checked by conjunctiva and nail bed palpation), fatigue, myocardial infraction, dsypnea.

Hgb Transfusion

Federal guidelines relating to transfusions. A person can receive a transfusion with a Hgb value less than 8, or a person is symptomatic.
DIB, Tachypnea, Tachycardia

Hematocrit normal value range (Hct)

Males: 40%-54%
Females: 36% - 46%
General rule of thumb: 3xHgb=Hct

What does Hct represent.

A high Hct represent dehydration
A low Hct represent over-hydration

BUN Normal Values - Blood Urea Nitrogen; What does BUN an indicator for?

BUN values: 10-20 mg/dL
BUN is an indicator for renal function and hydration

BUN Critical Values and Associated Problems

Critical high value is 100mg/dL
High BUN levels indicate dehydration, excessive protein intake and impaired renal function

Low BUN levels indicate overhydration, liver damage, malnutrition

Creatinine normal values, and what does Creatinine indicate

Normal Values : 0.6-1.6
Males: 0.8-1.8
Females: 0.5-1.5

Creatinine indicates kidney failure. This rises later than BUN. Signifies muscle breaking down
High Creatinine indicates dehydration

Creatinine critical value

Critically high >7.4 which requires rather aggressive treatment such as dialysis.

Compare Creatinine and BUN values when testing.

BUN values are quicker to rise than Creatinine, therefore BUN values are not exact indicators of kidney function.

Glucose normal levels (fasting)

60-100 mg/dL

Critical Levels of Glucose

Low: <40 is critically low and indicates hypoglycemia.

High: >200 indicates Diabetes if levels are greater than 200 in two random blood sugar tests.

Albumin values and what they are

Normal values are 3.5-5.0. Albumin is a protein in plasma that is synthesized by the liver.

Critical Values for Albumin compared with malnutrition

3.4-2.8 slightly
2.7-1.9 moderately
<1.8 severely

PreAlbumin aka. Thyroxin normal levels

15-30

Comparing Albumin and Prealbumin in testing

Albumin results must be done 4-6 weeks to see any significance, and is a major indicator in malnutrition as it doesn't change relatively from day to day. Prealbumin tests can be done within 2-3 days at a cost much higher than that of Albumin.

Lipoproteins: LDL, HDL, & Cholesterol levels

Low Density Lipoproteins: 60-160; higher than that increases risk for coronary artery disease
High Density Lipoproteins: 29-77 (good for you)
Cholesterol <200

Test requirements for Lipoproteins

12-14 hour fasting (except water), including no alcoholic beverages for at least 24 hours prior to test.

UA - Urinalysis values
pH
Specific gravity
Red/White Cells
Bacteria
Bilirubin
Protein
Glucose
Ketones

pH: 5-9
Specific gravity: 1.010-1.030
Red/White Cells: <5
Bacteria: none (infection if present)
Bilirubin: none (liver disease if present)
Protein: <20 (kidney disease if >20)
Glucose: none (diabetes)
Ketones: none (possible diabetes)

WBC normal count

A normal white blood cell count is 4,500-10,000 UL

WBC abnormal levels

Low: <1,000
High: >15,000 (significant of infection)

What makes up 85% of WBC

Neutrophils + lymphocytes

What % of WBC are neutrophils?

Approximately 50%-70%
of that percentage Segments (mature) make up 50%-65% while Bands (immature) make up 0%-5%. An increase in bands so a serious sign of infection

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