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I, Robert Nicholas Conda, the creator of the flashcard set "World Cultures", hereby acknowledge that the material contained within the flashcards of the flashcard set "World Cultures" is taken directly from the text of "World History: Patterns of Interaction" and is not intended as my own intellectual property.

Prehistory

before man started to write

Artifacts

human-made objects

Anthropologist

someone who studies a people's culture

Archaeologist

someone who digs up prehistoric artifacts

Culture

a people's unique way of life

Paleontologist

someone who studies fossils

Hominids

humans and other creatures that walk upright

Mary Leakey

led an expedition to Laetoli looking for clues about human origins and found footprints of australopithecines

Culture

the way people live and work to satisfy their needs

Homo Sapiens

the species name for modern humans

Technology

ways of applying knowledge, tools, and inventions to meet one's needs

Homo Habilis

first to make stone tools

2.5 Million B.C.

beginning of the Stone Age

3,000 B.C.

end of the stone age

8,000 B.C.

when the Paleolithic Age became the Neolithic Age

Nomads

highly mobile people who moved from place to place searching for new sources of food

Hunter-Gatherers

nomadic groups whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods

Neolithic Revolution

the far-reaching changes in human life resulting from farming

Ice Man

Neolithic human discovered near the border of Austria and Italy by two German hikers

Domestication

taming

Jarmo

a site in Northeastern Iraq that was home to the birthplace of agriculture

Catal Huyuk

an agricultural village located on a fertile plain in south-central Turkey

Obsidian

a volcanic glass used to make mirrors, jewelry, and knives

Nile River Valley

river valley that produces wheat, barley, and other crops

Yellow River

river that produces millet

Chang Jiang River Delta

river valey that produces wild rice

Mexico and Central America

produces corns, beans, and squash

Peru

produces tomatoes and potatoes

Slash-and-Burn Farming

farming in which trees or grasses are cut and burned to clear a field

Sumer

one of the first civilizations

Mesopotamia

where Sumer is located

Advanced Cities, Specialized Workers, Complex Institutions, Record Keeping, Improved Technology

Five Characteristics of Civilizations

Specialization

the development of skills in a specific kind of work

Artisans

skilled workers who make goods by hand

Institutions

long-lasting patterns of organization in a community

Scribes

professional record-keepers

Cuneiform

wedge-shaped

Stylus

a scribe's tool, a sharpened reed with a wedgee-shaped point

Bronze Age

the time when people began using bronze, rather than copper and stone, to fashion tools and weapons

Ur

the site of a highly sophisticated civilization in Sumer

Leonard Woolley

an English archaeologist that unraveled the mystery of Ur

Barter

a way of trading goods and services without money

Ziggurat

a pyramid-shaped monument

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