technology in action ch. 1-13

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Images are a representation of sound and light waves called ________ or continuous waves.

analog

Digital formats are descriptions of signals as:

a long string of numbers

The most full-featured and powerful cell phones are put in the category of:

smartphones.

Symbian is:

an operating system for cell/smartphones.

The Apple iPhone uses a version of ________ as an operating system.

Mac OS X

The operating system of a cell phone is stored in:

ROM

An analog-to-digital converter chip:

converts the sound waves from a voice into a digital signal

The newest cell/smartphone displays are ________, which allow bright, sharp imaging and draw less power.

OLED

A base transceiver station receives a request for cellular service and passes that request to a central location called a:

mobile switching center

Ensuring that two devices, for example, a PC and a cell/smartphone, have the same files is the process of:

synchronizing

A(n) ________ is included in a cell phone to handle the compression of data for it to be quickly transmitted to another phone.

codec

Which of the following uses radio waves to transmit data signals over short distances and is not hampered by needing a direct line of sight?

Bluetooth

________ is the use of equipment to provide voice communications over a distance.

Telephony

Text messaging is also called:

short message service (SMS).

Text prediction ________ provide a list of popular words and save typing time when using text messaging.

algorithms

SMS delivers messages to the appropriate mobile device using ________ technology

store-and-forward

Opera Mobile is an example of:

a microbrowser.

Web content specially designed for viewing via a cell/smartphone is written in a format called:

WML (Wireless Markup Language).

Which of the following is specialized software made to display Web pages on a cell phone?

microbrowser

LogMeIn is an example of a:

remote access service for mobile devices

An iPod is an example of a:

personal media player (PMP).

A portable media player can play files with all of the following file extensions EXCEPT:

DOC

Flash memory, used by most MP3 players, is a type of:

nonvolatile memory.

Which of the following is the process of sharing files between two or more computers?

peer-to-peer (P2P) sharing

Which of the following allows you to download and play music with restrictions enforced about its use?

tethered downloads

To transfer files from your computer to a portable media player (PMP), most newer PMPs use a ________ port or a FireWire port.

USB 2.0

Which of the following describes the number of times an analog wave is measured each second during an analog-to-digital conversion?

sampling rate

All of the following are advantages of VoIP EXCEPT:

portability.

________ is a form of voice-based Internet communication that turns a standard Internet connection into a means to place phone calls, including long-distance calls.

VoIP

Which of the following statements is NOT true about the JPEG file format?

JPEGs are larger than raw files

________ is a special copyleft license used for software.

GNU

MPEG-4, H.264, and DivX are all examples of

codecs

Broadcasting your video to a live audience over the Web is referred to as:

Webcasting

________ is a single cable that carries all audio and video information from devices connected to a TV to the TV itself.

HDMI

Netbooks are also referred to as:

subnotebooks.

Who funded the development of technologies that would eventually become the Internet?

The United States Government

Which of the following entities does NOT play a role in the governance and deployment of the Internet?

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)

The organization responsible for the Internet's domain name system and IP address allocation is:

ICANN

________ is a consortium of more than 400 member organizations that develops Web protocols

W3C

The main paths of the Internet along which data travels the fastest are known collectively as the Internet ________.

backbone

The majority of Internet communications follows the ________ model of network communications

client/sever

________ are high-speed, fiber-optic communications lines

OC lines

One or more network switches to which ISPs connect are referred to as

Internet exchange points (IXPs)

By using a(n) ________, individual Internet users are able to connect to their ISP

Point of presence (POP)

By using common ________, networks can communicate even if they have different network topologies, transmission media, or operating systems.

communication protocols

Used since the early days of the telephone, ________ uses a dedicated connection between two points that remains active during transmission.

circuit switching

At a minimum, what content must all data packets contain?

recipient's address, sender's address, reassembling instructions, and data

The original Internet backbone used T lines, which used:

twisted pair wires

Which of the following has the greatest bandwidth

OC lines

Computers running specialized operating systems that enable them to host Web pages and other information are called:

Web Servers

Computers that host software that enables users to purchase goods and services over the Internet are called ________ servers

commerce

.com and .org are examples of:

top-level domains

A set of rules for exchanging electronic information is called a

protocol.

________ protocols are standards that are made public for access by any interested party.

Open system

________ uses a dedicated connection between two points that remains active for the duration of transmission.

Circuit switching

When data is broken into smaller chunks to be sent over various routes at the same time, it is called:

packet switching

BitTorrent is an example of a popular file-sharing service that uses:

peer-to-peer mode.

The protocol that prepares data for transmission but has no resending capabilities is:

UDP.

The protocol that transfers HTML data from servers to browsers is:

HTTP.

The protocol that enables logging in to a remote computer and working on it as if you were sitting in front of it is:

Telnet

Which of the following specifications is used to simplify attachments to e-mail messages?

MIME

A unique number that identifies a computer, server, or device connected to the Internet is called a(n):

IP address.

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4), created in the early 1980s, allows about __________ IP addresses

4 billion

An IP address that is assigned from an available pool of IP addresses is called a(n):

dynamic address

IPv6 uses what number system to create IP addresses?

hexadecimal

An IP address that does not change and is usually assigned manually by a network administrator is called a(n):

static address.

A ________ server takes a pool of IP addresses and shares them with hosts on the network on an as-needed basis

DHCP

Which of the following statements concerning IPv4 addresses is FALSE?

The addresses are 16-bit numbers

Which of the following statements concerning IP addresses is TRUE?

Dynamic addressing is normally handled by DHCP

________ provides a methodology whereby your browser can request that a program be executed instead of just being delivered to the browser.

CGI

The root DNS servers know the location of all DNS servers that contain the master listings for an entire:

top-level domain

A(n) ________ contains text that is linked to other documents or media.

hypertext document

________ creates a secure connection between a client and a server and can safeguard your credit card information.

SSL

Which of the following statements concerning HTML and XHTML is FALSE?

HTML and XHTML are considered server-side programs

Text such as <b><i>This should be bolded and italicized.</i></b> is an example of an HTML

element

It is estimated that ________ percent of e-mail is spam.

90

The ability of two or more people to communicate in text over the Internet in real time is called:

instant messaging

________ are lists of statements that use a single location to specify how to display HTML/XHTML elements

Cascading style sheets (CSS)

What is the range of normal Wi-Fi connectivity?

300 feet

What is the range of normal WiMAX connectivity?

31 Miles

Currently used in Europe and Australia, ________ uses a normal wall outlet to connect to the Internet

BPL

________ switching has been used since the early days of the telephone for establishing communication

Circuit

Which protocol uses standard Internet connections to make phone calls over the Internet?

VoIP

________ delivers business services online that were previously delivered locally by company-owned IT departments

Cloud computing

Cascading style sheets have a hierarchy of styles that include all of the following EXCEPT

independent

A ________ is a secure Internet pathway that large corporations use to protect sensitive data

VPN

Which of the following is formally defined as any criminal action perpetrated primarily through the use of a computer?

cybercrime

A majority of online credit card fraud results from

phishing

A computer virus normally attaches itself to another computer program known as a:

host program.

A ________ is a virus that is triggered when certain conditions are met, such as a file opening or starting a program a certain number of times.

logic bomb

Which type of virus was the famous Michelangelo virus?

a time bomb

Which of the following classifications of viruses can change its own code?

polymorphic

A ________ works independently of host file execution and is much more active in spreading itself than a virus is.

worm

A(n) ________ virus temporarily erases its code from the files where they reside and then hides in the computer's active memory

stealth

With regard to computer protection, quarantining is defined as:

placing a found virus in a secure area on the hard drive.

During the process of ________ the antivirus software records key attributes about the files on your computer and keeps these statistics in a safe place on your hard drive

encryption

A(n) ________ is the portion of virus code that is unique to a particular computer virus

virus signature

Drive-by downloads occur when

a Web site downloads harmful software onto your computer

A packet sniffer is a program that can enable a hacker to do all of the following EXCEPT

launch a denial of service (DoS) attack on your computer

Which of the following is a program that appears to be something useful or desirable but does something malicious in the background?

a Trojan horse

________ floods a computer with requests until it shuts down and refuses to answer any requests for information

A DDoS attack

The most likely method a hacker would use to access a computer is

entering through the Internet

Rules for creating passwords include all of the following EXCEPT

keep your password written down and stored in any easy-to-remember location

You can block logical ports to invaders and make your computer invisible to others on the Internet by installing

a firewall.

________ makes broadband users more vulnerable to attacks.

Static addressing

The purpose of network address translation (NAT) is to:

hide user IP addresses from the Internet

________ occurs when a hacker takes control of a Bluetooth-enabled device to make phone calls, read phonebook entries, send and receive text messages, and more

Bluebugging

Configuring a firewall to ignore all incoming packets that request access to a specific port is known as:

logical port blocking.

Many ________ sold for home use are also configured as firewalls and are capable of performing network address translation (NAT).

routers

Using a ________, hackers can access and delete all files on your computer, send e-mail, run programs, and do just about anything else you can do with your computer

backdoor program

Adware and spyware are referred to collectively as:

grayware

________ is an unwanted piggyback program that usually downloads with software you are installing from the Internet

Spyware

Spyware programs that monitor keystrokes with the intent of stealing passwords, login IDs, or credit card information are referred to as

keystroke loggers.

Which of the following statements about cookies is NOT true?

Cookies obtain your personal information by searching your hard drive

Devices that use a unique personal characteristic, such as a fingerprint, in place of a password are called ________ authentication devices

biometric

All of the following can be used for backing up data files EXCEPT

RAM

All of the following approaches can be taken to protect your notebook computer from theft EXCEPT

installing an external hard drive.

A ________ is a virus that is attached to documents such as Word or Excel files.

macro virus

A(n) ________ virus runs a program that searches for common data files, compresses them, and makes them unusable

encryption

________ is doing anything with a computer while you are being paid to do your job

Cyberloafing

For complete protection when backing up your files, you should use a program that creates a(n) ________ of your entire system

image backup

Social ________ is any technique that uses social skills to generate human interaction that entices individuals to reveal sensitive information

engineering

________ encourages Internet users to reveal sensitive information that could lead to identity theft by sending e-mails that look like they are from legitimate companies but are, in fact, fake.

Phishing

A cyberspace ________ is an attempt to make someone believe something that is untrue

hoax

Which of these statements about physically protecting your computer is FALSE

Data line surges can be blocked by using a computer surround

Which of the statements about protecting against power surges is FALSE

Printers do not require power surge protection

As defined by the NSA and the Office of Homeland Security, a set of measures intended to protect and defend information and information systems is referred to as

information quality control

Which of the following is NOT an example of a network node?

a mouse

A computer network is defined as two or more computers connected with ________ so that they can communicate with each other

software and hardware

A(n) ________ allows sharing of a broadband Internet connection

router

Network architectures are classified according to:

the way they are controlled and the distance between their nodes.

Normal telephone wire is:

twisted pair cable

The ________ is the maximum speed at which data can be transmitted between two nodes on a network

data transfer rate

The most common type of home network is:

a peer-to-peer (P2P) network

Due to the expansion of media files on home computers, ________ options are now being marketed; however, they are not as full featured as their business-world counterparts

home server

A network that has 10 or more nodes is usually configured as a:

client/server network

Which of the following is NOT an example of a WAN?

LANs connected in a single building

A ________ is a network located in your home that is used to connect all of your digital devices

HAN

Which transmission medium is able to transmit data the fastest?

fiber-optic cable

Throughput, the actual speed of data transfer that is achieved in a network, is usually

less than the data transfer rate

Network adapters

enable nodes in a network to communicate with each other.

Sophisticated networks generally use which of the following hardware devices to ease the flow of data packets throughout the network?

routers and switches

Client/server networks are controlled by a central server that runs a specialized piece of software called:

a network operating system (NOS).

The major difference in types of P2P networks is the ________ by which the nodes are connected and the bandwidth each achieves

transmission medium

For Ethernet cables that run more than 100 meters, you can use ________ to boost the signal

repeaters

Which of the following UTP cable types is the cheapest and often used in home networks?

Cat 5E

The most popular transmission medium option for wired Ethernet networks is:

unshielded twisted pair cable (UTP).

A(n) ________ keeps track of data packets and, in conjunction with network interface cards, helps the data packets find their destination without running into each other on an Ethernet network

switch

Which of the following is necessary if you want your Ethernet network to connect to the Internet through a DSL or cable modem?

a DSL/cable router

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