GACS lclab US History Fall Final Review - Unit 4

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GACS lclab- US History Fall Final Review - Unit 4 - Chapters 10 through 12

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Author of the novel "Uncle Tom's Cabin" in 1852, which contributed significantly to anti-southern feelings among northerners before the Civil War.

Winfield Scott

general in the Mexican War who captured Mexico City; became a member of the Whig party in 1852. He came up with the Anaconda Plan in the Civil War.

David Wilmot

Pennsylvania Democrat- "Wilmot Proviso" - an amendment stating slavery nor involuntary servitude would exist in any part of Mexico

Zachary Taylor

12th president of the United States, 1849-1850, member of Whig party and Mexican War officer.

Stephen Douglas

Illinois senator who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which allowed new territories to choose their own position on slavery; debated slavery issues againt Abraham Lincoln.

Daniel Webster

Senator from Massachusetts who used his great oratorical skills to persuade Congress to adopt the Compromise of 1850.

John Brown

Abolitionist crusader who massacred pro-slavery settlers in Kansas before the Civil War; hoped to inspire slavery revolt with 1859 attack on Virginia arsenal; executed for treason against the state of Virginia

Dred Scott

A slave who filed a lawsuit to seek legal emancipation

Roger B. Taney

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court who wrote an opinion in 1857 on Dred Scott case that declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutonal; Had the effect of making all blacks non-citizens and outlawed the restriction of slavery in the territories.

Abraham Lincoln

President of the United States 1861-1865; known for his effective leadership during the Civil War and his Emancipation Proclamation declaring the end of slavery in Confederat held territories

Ulysses S. Grant

Head of army during second part of the war, later became President. Grant believed in attrition. Ended the war. 18th President of the United States 1869-1877. Commander of union forces who accepted Lee's surrender in 1865

George McClellan

Ran against President Lincoln in second election. Was head General for first part of the war. Came down with the "slows"

Robert E. Lee

Leader of the Confederate army. Sided with them for Virginia.

Jefferson Davis

President of the Confederate States of America; ordered attack on Fort Sumter

Clara Barton

Volunteer known as "angel of the battlefield" during the Civil War. Founded the American Red Cross.

Stonewall Jackson

Conferate General known for his swift strikes against union forces; earned nickname "Stonewall" by holding his forces steady under extreme pressue atthe first battle of Manassas.

William T. Sherman

Union general in the Civil War, known for his destructive march to the sea in 1864

John Wilkes Booth

Southern actor who assasinated President Abraham Lincoln in 1865.

Andrew Johnson

17th President of the United States 1865-1869; clashed with radical republicans on reconstruction programs, increased United States commitment during Vietnam War

Henry W. Grady

was a journalist and orator who helped reintegrate the States of the former Confederacy into the Union after the Civil War

Nathan Bedford Forrest

first overall leader "grand wizard" of the Klu Klux Klan (KKK). Before the war he had grown wealth as a cotton planter and slave trader. During the war, he was one of the Confederacy's most brilliant generals. Massacred 300 black Union soldiers and many black women & children. Captured Fort Pillow TN 1864.

James Buchanan

nominated for Democratic President in 1856. Supported the Compromise of 1850 & Kansas-Nebraska Act. Buchanan won the election & hoped to stop "the agitation of the slavery issue" in the North. 15th President of the US -1857-1861; supported by South

Manifest Destiny

argument that it was the undeniable fate of the United States to expand across North American; this was God's plan; Southerners wanted to use it to expand slavery

Freedmen's Bureau

Created by Congress in 1865, the first major federal relief agency in the United States

Freeport Doctrine

Stephen A. Douglas stated that slavery could be prevented from any territory by the refusal of the people living in that territory to pass laws favorable to slavery.

Trent Affair

Confederate President Davis sent 2 representatives (John Slidell & James Mason) to England & France. The reps made it past the Union blockade on the British ship, Trent. A union warship stopped the Trent & brought the representatives to the US. Great Britian then went to Canada & threatened war unless the reps were set free.

Emancipation Proclamation

A presidential decree by President Lincoln, effective 1/1/1863, that freed slaves in Confederate-held territory

Thirteenth Amendment

Constitutional Amendment, ratified in 1865 abolishing slavery.

Redeemers

A political coalition in the South during reconstruction era, who sought to oust the Republicans coalition of freed men, carpet baggers and scalawags.

Compromise of 1877

Agreement in which Democrats agreed to give Rutherford B. Hayes the victory in the Presidential election of 1876. Hayes, in return, agreed to remove the remaining federal troops from Southern states.

Compromise of 1850

Helped preserve temporary peace between North and South following Mexican War; prompted by California's request to enter Union as a free state.

Battle of Antietam

Civil War battle in Maryland in 1862

Battle of Shiloh

Civil War battle in Tennessee in 1862

Batle of Vicksburg

Grant layed seige to Vicksburg, Mississippi. For one month, Grant had Vicksburg shelled 2,800 shells per day. The people dug hide outs to stay alive and started eating horses, mules and dogs. Eventually the Confederates surrendered on July 4.

Battle of Gettysburg

Civil War battle in 1863 in Pennyslvania, won by the Union and a turning point in the war

Wade-Davis Bill

Required stringent requirements for Southern states re-entering the Union; pocket-vetoed by Lincoln

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