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These branching structures carry information toward the cell body of a neuron.

Dendrites

The neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine (ACh) are stored within the...

Axon terminal

What is the name of the space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of a second neuron?

Synapse or Synaptic Cleft

What is the name of the enzyme that destroys acetylcholine?

acetylcholinesterase

What term describes the hopping of the action potential (nerve impulse) along the axon from one node (of Ranvier) to the next?

Saltatory Conduction

The frontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes form the_____.

Cerebrum

The primary somatosensory area and the primary motor area are separated by...

the central sulcus.

There are four major areas of the brain: the cerebrum, diencephalon, brain stem, and the _____.

Cerebellum

The midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata are referred to as the_____.

Brain Stem

Excessive opioids (narcotics) depress the medulla oblongata and therefore cause...

Respiratory Depression

Endorphins are...

natural morphine-like substances that can reduce anxiety and induce a sense of well-being.

The surface of the cerebrum is folded into elevations that resemble speed bumps; these speed bumps are called _____.

Gyrus or Gyri

The depression between the convolutions of the cerebrum is called a_____.

Sulcus

The medulla oblongata descends as the_____.

Spinal Cord

The pituitary gland sits beneath the...

hypothalamus

Which layer of the meninges is described as web-like?

Arachnoid Mater

Corpus callosum is found where?

In between the right and left hemisphere.

In which cerebral lobe is Broca's area located?

Frontal

Which of the following structures is most associated with "wake up"?

reticular activating system

What lobe of the brain contains the primary auditory cortex?

The temporal lobe.

Which lobe of the brain contains the primary visual cortex?

The occipital lobe.

The spaces between the patches of myelin sheath is called...

The nodes of Ranvier

What is located within the subarachnoid space?

CSF

What is the function of the ependymal cells (choroid plexus)?

Forms CSF

What structure conducts a nerve impulse?

Neuron

__________ support and protect the neurons and help to form the blood-brain barrier.

Astrocytes

What is the name of clusters of cell bodies that are located outside the central nervous system?

Ganglia

What is the fatty insulating material that surrounds the axons?

Myelin Sheath

Which of the following is most related to "saltatory conduction"?

Nodes of Ranvier

Which of the following structures brings information toward the cell body?

Dendrites

What makes white matter "white"?

Myelin Sheath

The inside of the unstimulated neuron is negative; this electrical charge is due to the outward leak of potassium and is called...

the resting membrane potential

What is the name of the first phase of the action potential that is caused by the inward movement of sodium?

depolarization

What is the term applied to the inability of a neuron to accept a stimulus while the neuron is still depolarized?

refractory period

The repolarizing phase of the action potential is due to the movement of _____ out of the cell.

K+

Which of the following is the convolution located on the frontal lobe just anterior to the central sulcus?

Primary motor area

What is the name of the motor speech area located in the frontal lobe?

Broca's area

Which structure is also called the "emotional brain"?

Limbic system

The purpose of the Na+/K+ ATPase pump in the neuronal membrane is to

establish the Na+ and K+ gradients necessary for the development of an action potential.

This structure is part of the diencephalon; it regulates the anterior pituitary gland, water balance, appetite, body temperature, and the autonomic nervous system.

hypothalamus

This structure plays a key role in personality development and emotional and behavioral expression; carries out the "executive" functions.

frontal lobe

Injury to the occipital lobe is most likely to cause

loss of vision

Which structure is called the lateral, third, and fourth?

ventricles

Which of the following contains cerebrospinal fluid?

subarachnoid space

Which of the following is the middle layer of the meninges and looks like a spiderweb?

arachnoid mater

What connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres?

corpus callosum

Parkinson's disease

is caused by a deficiency of dopamine within the basal ganglia.

The medulla oblongata descends into the vertebral cavity through the

foramen magnum.

The postcentral gyrus

is located in the parietal lobe.

The precentral gyrus

is the primary motor area.

Broca's area

is concerned with motor speech.

Frontal eye fields

perform a motor role regarding the eyes.

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