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NEUROSCIENCE - BASAL GANGLIA

WHAT CONSTITUTES THE BASAL GANGLIA?

CAUDATE, PUTAMEN, GLOBUS PALLIDUS, SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, SUBSTANTIA NIGRA.

WHAT CONSTITUTES THE STRIATUM?

CAUDATE AND PUTAMEN & NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS?

WHAT CONSTITUTES THE LENTICULAR NUCLEUS?

PUTAMEN AND GLOBUS PALLIDUS

CORTICAL INPUT TO BASAL GANGLIA IS TO...?

THE STRIATUM AND SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS

OUTPUT NUCLEI OF THE BASAL GANGLIA ARE...?

GPi AND SUBSTANTIA NIGRA RETICULARIS

INTRINSIC NUCLEI OF THE BASAL GANGLIA ARE...?

GLOBUS PALLIDUS EXTERNAL (GPe) AND SUBSTANTIA NIGRA PARS COMPACTA

OUTPUT FROM BASAL GANGLIA IS...

GABAERGIC - INHIBITORY

INPUT TO THE BASAL GANGLIA IS...

GLUTAMINERGIC - FASCILITATORY

THE DIRECT INTERNAL PATHWAY OF THE BASAL GANGLIA INVOLVES:

INHIBITORY INPUT FROM STRIATUM TO GPi/SUBSTANTIA NIGRA RETICULARIS

HOW DOES THE DIRECT PATHWAY AFFECT BEHAVIOUR?

INHIBITION OF GPi/SNr REDUCES INHIBTION OF THALAMUS - FASCILITATES BEHAIOUR

THE INDIRECT PATHWAY OF THE BASAL GANGLIA INVOLVES:

INHIBITORY INPUT FROM STRIATUM TO GPe; INHIBITORY INPUT FROM GPe TO STN; FASCILITATORY INPUT FROM STN TO GPi/SNr

HOW DOES THE INDIRECT PATHWAY INFLUENCE BEHAVIOUR?

SUPPRESSES UNWANTED BEHAVIOUR

WHAT TYPE OF NEURONS DOMINATE THE STRIATUM, AND WHAT PERCENT?

95% MEDIUM SPINY INHIBITORY NEURONS

WHAT IS A PATCH OF MEDIUM SPINY NEURONS CALLED?

STRIOSOME

WHAT TYPE OF NEURON CONSTITUTES 5% OF STRIATUM?

ASPINY INTERNEURONS - EITHER GABAERGIC (MEDIUM) OR ACETYLCHOLINERGIC (LARGE)

WHAT EFFECT DOES A DORSAL CAUDATE LESION HAVE?

DYSEXECUTIVE SYNDROME; VISUOSPATIAL IMPAIRMENT (EARLY PARKINSONS)

WHAT EFFECT DOES A VENTRAL CAUDATE LESION HAVE?

DISINHIBITED BEHAVIOURS; ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOUR (FROM DOPAMINERGIC INPUT)

WHAT EFFECT DOES A PUTAMINAL LESION HAVE? (IN GENERAL)

HEMIPLEGIA

POSTERIOR PUTAMEN LESION?

WEAKNESS, SENSORY LOSS, IMPAIRED VISION

ANTERIOR PUTAMEN LESION?

MOTOR IMPERSISTENCE, UNILATERAL NEGLECT

RIGHT PUTAMEN LESION?

VISUAL NEGLECT

DESCRIBE THE INPUT TO GPe

INHIBITORY (GABA) FROM STRIATUM
EXCITATORY (GLUTAMATE) FROM SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS

DESCRIBE OUTPUT FROM GPe

PARVALBUMIN POSITIVE OUTPUT TO STN & GPi/SNr
PARVALBUMIN NEGATIVE TO STRIATUM.

GPe LESIONS RESULT IN:

ATTENTION DEFICIT AND HYPERACTIVITY

DESCRIBE THE FUNCTIONAL REGIONS OF THE SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS

DORSOLATERAL: MOTOR
MEDIAL: LIMBIC
VENTROMEDIAL: ASSOCIATIVE

DESCRIBE THE INPUTS TO THE STN

INHIBITORY (GABA) FROM GPe - RECIPROCAL
EXCITATORY (GLUTAMATE) FROM MOTOR CORTEX

DESCRIBE THE OUTPUTS FROM THE STN

EXCITATORY (GLUTAMATE) TO GPi/SNr AND GPe

LESION OF THE SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS RESULTS IN

CONTRALTERAL HEMIBALLISM

THE SUBSTANTIA NIGRA RETICULARUS IS RELATED TO THE MOVEMENT OF WHAT PART OF THE BODY?

EYES, HEAD AND NECK

THE GPi IS RELATED TO THE MOVEMENT OF WHAT PART OF THE BODY?

LIMBS, AXIAL

LESIONS TO THE GPi RESULT IN..?

SELF ACTIVATION DEFICIT

DOPAMINE ____ THE INDIRECT PATHWAY WITH ______ RECEPTORS

INHIBITS, D2 LIKE (D2,D3,D4)

DOPAMINE___ THE DIRECT PATHWAY WITH ____RECEPTORS

EXCITES, D1 LIKE RECEPTORS (D1, D5)

DOPAMINE _____ BEHAVIOUR

FASCILITATES

DESCRIBE THE PATHWAY OF THE LENTICULAR FASCICULUS

GPi TO THALAMUS VIA INTERNAL CAPSULE

DESCRIBE THE PATHWAY OF THE ANSA LENTICULARIS

GPi TO THALAMUS

DESCRIBE THE PATHWAY OF THE THALAMIC FASCICULUS

CEREBELLUM AND BASAL GANGLIA TO THALAMUS

DESCRIBE THE PATHWAY OF THE SUBTHALAMIC FASCICULUS

STN TO GLOBUS PALLIDUS VIA INTERNAL CAPSULE

WHAT ARE THE FIVE PARALLEL CIRCUITS OF THE BASAL GANGLIA?

1. MOTOR
2.OCULOMOTOR
3. DORSOLATERL PREFRONTAL (ASSOCIATIVE)
4. LATERAL ORBITOFRONTAL (ASSOCIATIVE)
5. LIMBIC

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