BMCC- NUR 313- Chapter 28- Nursing Management- Lower Respiratory Problems

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Acute Bronchitis

is an inflammation of the bronchi in the lower respiratory tract; with or after a viral upper respiraoty tract infection; Cough (10-20days); Clear mucoid sputum/possible purulent sputum;

Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP)

is a lower respiratory tract infection with ondet in the community or during the first 2 days of hospitalization

Cor Pulmonale

right ventricular hypertrophy caused by pumonary hypertension leading to heart failure.

Empyema

The accumulation of purulent exudate in the pleural cavity, occurs in less than 5% of cases and requires antibiotic therapy and drainage of the exudate by a chest tube or open surgical drainage.

Flail Chest

fracture of two or more adjacent ribs in two or more places with loss of chest wall stability; paradoxic chest wall movement, respiratory distress, association with hemothorax, pneumothorax or pulmonary contusion; O2 maintenance, analgesia, positive pressure (CPAP, BiPAP) or intubation and mechanical ventilation, treat associated injuries.

Hemothorax

blood in the pleural space, may or may not occur in conjunction with pnuemothorax; Dyspnea, diminished and absent breath sounds, dullness to percussion, decreased hemoglobin, shock depending on blood volume lost; Chest tube insertion with chest drainage system, autotransfusion of collected blood, treatment of hypovolemia;

Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (HAP)

is pneumonia occurring 48 hours or longer after hospital admission and not incubating at the time of hospitalization.

Lung Abscess

is a cavity in the lung parenchyma containing purulent material.

Pertussis

is a highly contagious infection of the lower respiratory tract with a gram-negative bacillus, Bordella Pertussis; dangerous to children (esp under 6 months); inspiratory gasps (whooping sound), vomiting;

Pleural Effusion

(transudate fluid in the pleural space_

Pleurisy (Pleuritis)

Inflammation of the pleura. (relatively common)

Pneumoconiosis

is a feneral term for a group of lung diseases caused by inhalation and retention of dust particles. (dust in the lungs)

Pneumonia

is an acute inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is most frequently caused by a microorganism.

Pneumothorax

is air in the pleural space.

Pulmonary Edema

ia an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the alveoli and interstitial spaces of the lungs.

Pulmonary Embolism

is a blockage of pulmonary arteries by a thrombus, fat or air embolus, or tumor tissue.

Pulmonary Hypertension

is an elevated pulmonary pressure resultin gfrom an increase in lumonary vascular resistance to blood flow; SOB, fatigue

Tension Pneumothorax

a severe stage of pneumothorax in which the mediastinal cavity is shifted from the midline affecting venous return and cardiac output; dyspnea, chest pain, tracheal deviation, decreased or absent breath sounds, neck vein distention and cyanosis.

Thoracentesis

is an aspiration of intrapleural fluid for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

Thoracotomy

is a surgical opening into the thoracic cavity.

Tuberculosis (TB)

is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Parenchyma

are the functional parts of an organ.

In assessing a patient with pneumococcal pneumonia, the nurse recognizes that clinical manifestations of this condition include...

an abrupt onset of fever, productive cough with rust-colored sputum.

An appropriate nursing intervention for a patient with pneumonia with the nursing diagnosis of ineffectve airway clearance related to thick secretions and fatigue would be to...

teach the patient how to cough effectively to bring secretions to the mouth.

A patient with TB has been admitted to the hospital and is place in an airborne infection isolation room. Which of the foolowing should the patient be taught...

take all medications for full length of time to prevent multidrug-resistant TB; wear a standard isolation mask if leaving the airborne infection isolation room; Maintain precautions in airborne anfection isolation room by coughing into a paper tissue.

A patient has been receiving high-dose corticosteroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics for treatment secondary to a traumatic injury and infection. The nurse plans care for the paitnet knowing that the patient is most susceptible to...

candidiasis.

Which statement best describes the treatment of lung abscess?

Antibiotics given for a prolonged period are the usual treatment of choice.

A common complication of many types of environmental lung diseases is...

pulmonary fibrosis.

The patient with lung cancer needs to receive influenza vaccine and pneumococcal vaccines. The nurse will...

administer both vaccines at the same time in different arms.

The nurse identifies a flail chest in a trauma patient when...

there is a paradoxical chest movement occurs during respiration.

The nurse notes tidaling of the water level in the tube submerged in the water-seal chamber in a patient with closed chest tube drainage. The nurse should...

continue to monitor this normal finding.

A nursing measure that should be instituted after a pneumonectomy is...

range-of-motion exercises on the affected upper extremity.

Guillain-Barre Syndrome causes respiratory problems primarily by...

interrupting nerve transmission to respiratory muscles.

A patient is on a continuous epoprostenol infusion pump. The alarm foes off indicating an obstruction in the intravenous line downstream. The nurse should...

assess the central line immediately for any obstuction or accidental clamping of tubing.

Which of the following statements describe the management of a patient following lung transplantation...

the lung is biopsied using a transtracheal method; the use of a home spirometer will help to monitor lung function; Immunosuppressant therapy usually involves a three-drug regimen.

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