who was at the Constitutional Convention?
"Framers of the Constitution." 55 delegates; men; most young; average age 42; most played important role in American Revolution; leaders in their states; 3/4 delegates in Congress
who was not at the Constitutional Convention?
Thomas Jefferson (in France); John Adams (in England); Patrick Henry ("I smell a rat"). no women, no African Americans, no American Indians; no poor farmers, no one from New Jersey legislature
New Jersey Plan
weak national government; one house of Congress; equal representation; Congress power to collect taxes on products; Congress regulate trade; Executive and Judicial branches of government
strong national government; individual state governments and national government (federal system); national government power to make and enforce laws; government divided into legislative, executive, judicial branches; 2 houses: House of Representatives, Senate; # of Reps proportional
aka Connecticut Compromise; 3 parts: 1)Congress, two houses-Senate and House of Representatives. 2) House would be proportional representation. 3)Senate would be equal representation. small states got equal rep in senate. lg states got proportional rep in house. lg states more influence issues of taxes and spending. small states could check lg states by changing or rejecting taxes and bills passed in the House.
a state could send representatives to the House of Reps. numbers based on counting free persons, indentured servants and 3/5ths of all other people (slaves)
Fugitive Slave clause
states that persons who escaped from slavery to a state where slavery was prohibited "shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due."
those rights and responsibilites of the US government specifically provided for and listed in the Constitution
necessary and proper clause
article I, section 8, clause 18 of the Constitution that gives Congress the power to make all laws that are "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers specifically delegated to it by the Constitution. aka the Elastic Clause
general welfare clause
article 1, section 8, clause 1 of Constitution that authorizes Congress to provide for the common defense of the country and common good, described as general welfare (what is best for most of the people)
ex post facto laws
a law that makes an act a crime that was not a crime when the act was committed, that increases the penalty for a crime after it was committed, or that changes the rules of evidence to make conviction earsier. Ex post facto laws are forbidden by Article I of the Constitution
supreme courts powers
powers to overule state laws that violate the Constitution or the laws made by Congress.
presidential checks to power
Constiution limits the powers of the executive branch by making it share most of its powers with Congress. Appointments, Treaties, War, Veto. House of Reps can impeach the president.
the group of presidential electors who cast the official votes president and vp after a presidential election. Each stae has a number of electors equal to the total of its members in the Senate and House of Reps
reasoning for judges appointments
judges would be independent of politics. they could use their best judgement to decide cases and not worry about the influence of political pressures.
the legal authority of a court to be the first to hear a case
the legal authority of a court to hear appeals from a lower court
differences between North and South - SOUTH
economy almost completely agricultural (cotton, tobacco, indigo). lg farms depended on slave labor. Southern farmers shipped goods to Great Britain, Europe. bought goods from GB.
differences between North and South - NORTH
diverse economy. farmers, fishers, merchants, bankers. economy didn't depend on slave labor. center for shipbuilding and trade with other nations. had to compete for business with Great Britain's shipping and manufacturing industries.
"Father of the Constitution"
Who was the famous one who supported the compromises?