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graft

acquisition of money or power in dishonest or questionable ways while in public office.

political machine

party organization in big cities that holds power by controlling votes, courts and police.

kickback

payback of a sum received from increased fees because of a confidential agreement or act of coercion.

ward

division of a city for representatives, electoral or administrative purposes.

lobbyist

person who promotes or secures the passage of legislation by influencing public officials.

patronage

the practice of elected officials to make appointments to unelected government positions for political advantage or repayment of favors.

rider

unrelated amendment attached to a bill under legislative consideration.

free trader

one that practices or advocates trade without taxes or tariffs.

protectionist

one who advocates government protection for domestic producers and manufacturer through restriction on imports.

antebellum

customs, manners and institutions that existed before the Civil War.

realism

European-influenced literary movement that strove for accurate representation of nature or real life without idealization.

expatriate

person who leaves his or her native country to live somewhere else.

yellow journalism

type of newspaper reporting in the late 1890's that featured sensational headlines and stories.

Tweed Ring

The most notorious political machine.

Thomas Nast

political cartoonist who ridiculed Tweed in his cartoons.

James Fisk and Jay Gould

reaped millions of dollars from their relationship with President Grant.

Abraham Lincoln

"Patron Saint" of the Republican party.

"Waving the Bloody Shirt"

what critics of Republicans running for office were accused of when they would bring up issues from the Civil War.

"The Solid South"

term meaning the South's loyalty to the Democratic party after the Civil War.

Thomas Jefferson and Andrew Jackson

"patron saints" of the Democratic party.

Claimed they represented ordinary Americans

Democrats

"The government governs best which governs least."

motto of the Democratic party

Shaking Down Process

forced federal workers to make campaign contributions.

stalwarts

a group of Republican machine politicians who strongly opposed civil service reform.

People that wanted to oust Hayes and nominate Grant for a third term

stalwarts

halfbreeds

Republicans who opposed Grant.

partisan

agreed upon by both parties.

James G. Blaine

Republican nominee in 1884, talented man with a bad reputation.

Grover Cleveland

Democratic nominee in 1884, good reputation, but had fathered an illegitimate son. Had been the mayor of Buffalo and the governor of New York.

mugwumps

reformers of the Republican party who did not support Blaine but instead supported Democrat Grover Cleveland.

Grover Cleveland

narrowly won the 1884 election, becoming the first Democratic president since 1856.

Grover Cleveland

first Democratic president elected after the Civil War.

Presidential Succession Act

established a line to take the presidency in the event of the death of the vice president.

protectionists

believed that tariffs were necessary to nurture growing industries in the U.S.

tariffs

kept wages high by shielding them from cheap foreign labor.

tariff

major issue in the presidential election of 1888.

Grover Cleveland and Benjamin Harrison

presidential nominees in the election of 1888.

This party campaigned on protective tariffs in 1888.

Republicans

This party campaigned on unnecessary taxes.

Democrats

Benjamin Harrison

won the 1988 presidential election by winning the electoral college,but losing the popular vote.

McKinley Tariff of 1890

highest in the country's history. Dried up revenue by levying rates so high that some foreign products were kept entirely out of the country.

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

authorized the government to buy up 4.5 million ounces of silver a month.

James B. Weaver

in 1892, ran as the candidate for the People's Party, also known as the Populist Party.

elective system

made it possible for students to choose an individual course of study.

MIT

supplied industry with highly trained engineers, metallurgists and chemists.

Morrill Act of 1862

gave public lands to each state as a grant to finance the endowment of colleges.

local color writing

popular style of post-war writing that looked to the pst, attempting to capture the romance of vanishing rural traditions.

Currier and Ives

New York lithographers who produced inexpensive paintings.

Penny Newspaper

strove to amuse readers as much as to inform them.

Joseph Pulitzer

purchased the New York World, the pioneer among newspapers.

dime novels

especially of interest to boys. These were adventure stories where heroes fought cattle rustlers and also portrayed the worlds of business and crime.

Cincinatti Red Stockings

first professional baseball team

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