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Prime Minister North

This man assembled a large invasion force and selected General Howe to lead it. He also ordered General Howe to capture NYC and seize control of the Hudson River in order to isolate the Radical Patriots in New England from other colonies.

General William Howe

He was appointed to lead an invasion of American troops and capture NYC and seize control of the Hudson River. He also attacked America in the Battle of Long Island and forced their retreat to Manhattan Island. He opposed to the Coercive Acts and hoped for political compromise. His tactics reflected 18th century military practices- winning the surrender of the enemy rather than destroying them.

Continental Army

Led by George Washington and consisted of 18,000 poorly trained, short term recruits hastily assembled by the states governments in New England and Virginia. Recruits were often propertyless farmers and laborers: either poor American youths or older foreign born men (British ex-convicts or former indentured servants.) In battle they often had the "home-court" advantage. They were poorly supplied and faintly praised.

Battle of Saratoga

This event was the turning-point of the war. The Patriots captured 5,000 British troops and their equipment. The victory insured the success of American Diplomats in Paris who were seeking a military alliance with France.

General John Burgoyne

Often called "Gentleman Johnny," this man lead a large continent of British regulars from Quebec to Albany. He was defeated by General Howe and surrendered during the Battle of Saratoga in October 1777.

General Horatio Gates

Aided by the thousands of New England militia, American troops commanded by this man defeated Burgoyne at Bennington, Vermont, and, in October 1777, at Saratoga.

War of Independence

Also known as the American Revolution, this war began between Great Britain and the 13 colonies and concluded in a Global war between several European great powers.

Committees of Safety

These collected taxes, sent food and clothing to the Continental Army, and imposed fines or jail sentences on those who failed to support war causes.

Inflation

To feed, clothe, and pay for their troops, state officials borrowed silver, gold, and British currency from the wealthy. Taxes were raised, and individual states began to produce huge quantities of currency which were not backed by tax revenues, gold, or mortgages. Americans refused to accept money at its face value. This is one of the worst of these in American history.

Valley Forge

In the winter of 1777, 12,000 soldiers and hundreds of camp followers suffered terribly. Farmers refused to help and hoarded grain in hopes for higher prices. At the end of spring, over 4,000 men were either dead or missing. One winter here lost as many American lives as the first 2 years of fighting.

French Alliance

One treaty specified that once France entered the war against Great Britain, neither partner would sign a separate peace before the "liberty, sovereignty, and independence" of the United States were insured. American governments pledged that their government would recognize any French conquests in the West Indies. As a result, this bolstered confidence of the Continental Congress and gave new life to the Patriot's cause.

Lord Cornwallis

This man assumed the control of British forces in Charleston, South Carolina. He defeated an American force commanded by Gates. He Surrendered at Yorktown in October 1781 against the American army.

Gen. Nathaniel Greene

He was dispatched by General Washington to recapture the Carolinas

Militiamen

Local soldiers who were without discipline and addicted to plundering

Yorktown

Abandoned by the British navy, Cornwallis surrendered here in October 1781

Treaty of Paris

This was signed in September 1783 in which Great Britain formally recognized the independence of its seaboard colonies

Treaty of Versailles

In this Britain made a peace with France and Spain, but neither American ally gained much while America gained quite a lot

Republicanism

This can be described as a community oriented outlook

Tories

Another name for Loyalists who were once at the top of the economic ladder, but replaced by Patriot merchants

Emancipation

The freeing of slaves from their owners

Racism

Belief that one race is superior to the other

Declaration of Rights

This was issued by the Virginia's constitutional convention and guaranteed all Christians the free exercise of religion

Thomas Jefferson

He was the writer of the Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom

Separation of Church and State

This was believed by many Americans to be necessary in order to promote morality and respect for authority

Second Continental Congress

patriot leaders gathered in May 1775 in Philadelphia. Moderates in Congress wanted reconciliation with Britain. But zealous Patriots such as Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry wanted a Declaration of Causes and Necessities of Taking up Arms. The Radicals in Congress had won support for an invasion of Canada

Bunker Hill

3,000 British troops attacked American fortifications

Gen. George Washington

commander of the Continental army

Olive Branch Petition

last effort to avoid war, expressed loyalty to George III and requested repeal of oppressive Parliamentary legislation

Declaration of Causes and Necessities of Taking up Arms

supported by zealous patriots, Americans dreaded war but were "resolved to die Freemen rather than to live as slaves"

Proclamation of Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition

- issued by George III, he chose not to exploit the divisions among patriots

Prohibitory Acts

passed by parliament, which outlawed all trade with the colonies

Commone Sense

Published by Thomas Paine on January 1776; a direct assault on the traditional political order in rousing language that stirred poplar emotions; a call for independence and a republican form of government

Thomas Paine

- publishes Common sense; a minor bureaucrat in Customs Service in England and was fired for protesting low wages; migrated to Philadelphia, where he met other patriots who shared his republican sentiments

Declaration of Independence

July 4, 1776;defining values of the new nation; reasons why the colonies should be independent from Britain; Written by Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Robert Livingston, and Roger Sherman, blamed George III; employed the ideas of the European Enlightenment; justified republicanism

Thomas Jefferson

Main author of Declaration of Independence; member of the Virginia legislator

George III

King of England; headstrong monarch; help caused the American rebellion;

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