All living systems require constant input of energy.
Organisms capture, use, and store energy in biological processes such as growth, reproduction and maintaining homeostatic processes.
Organisms must exchange matter with the environment to grow, reproduce, and maintain organization.
Cell membranes are selectively permeable due to their structure.
Growth and dynamic homeostasis is maintained by the constant movement of molecules across membranes.
Eukaryotic cells maintain internal membranes that partition the cell into specialized regions.
Positive feedback mechanisms amplify responses and processes in biological organisms.
Organisms use negative feedback mechanisms to maintain their internal environments and respond to external environmental changes.
Organisms constantly respond to changes in their external environments.
Biological systems are affected by disruptions to their homeostasis.
Timing and coordination of several events are necessary for the normal development of an organism, and these events require regulation by multiple mechanisms.
Timing and coordination of physiological events are regulated by multiple mechanisms
DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of heritable information.
In most eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation through mitosis or meiosis plus fertilization.
Mendelian genetics provides a basic understanding of the underlying causes of the pattern traits from parent to offspring.
The inheritance pattern of many traits cannot be explained by simple Mendelian genetics.
Cells can be activated, produce new products, and retain their activated state through gene regulation
A variety of intercellular and intracellular signal transmissions mediate gene expression.
Changes in genotype can result in changes in phenotype.
Biological systems possess multiple mechanisms that increase genetic variation.
Viruses reproduce and can introduce genetic variation into their hosts.
Cell communication involves processes resulting from evolution that are shared common features.
Cells communicate with each other through direct contact with other cells or from a distance via chemical signaling.
Signal transduction pathways link signal reception with cellular response.
Errors in normal signal transduction may alter cellular response.
Organisms exchange information with each other in response to internal changes and external cues, which may change behavior.
The subcomponents of a biological polymer and their sequence determine the properties of that polymer.
Interactions of subcellular structures, including a repertory of eukaryotic organelles possessing specialized functions, provide essential cellular functions and activities.
Interactions between external stimuli and gene expression result in specialization of cells, tissues, and organs.
Organisms exhibit complex properties due to interactions between their constituent parts.
Interactions between molecules affect their structure and function.
Interactions between cells affect the fitness of the organism.
Global distribution of ecosystems changes substantially over time.
Variation in molecular units provides cells with a wider range of functions.
Environmental factors influence the expression of the genotype in an organism.