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John Adams

A Federalist who was Vice President under Washington in 1789, and later became President by three votes in 1796. Known for his quarrel with France, and was involved in the xyz Affair, Quais War, and the Convention of 1800. Later though he was also known for his belated push for peace w/ France in 1800. Regarding his personality he was a "respectful irritation".

John Jay

Chief Justice of the United States; in 1794 George Washington sent him to negotiate a treaty with England

Talleyrand

foreign minister; In 1797, Adams sent a diplomatic commission to France to settle matters about the upset of the Jay Treaty of 1794. The French thought that America was siding with the English violating the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. The commission was sent to talk to Talleyrand about the seizing of American ships by the French. Communication between the commission and Talleyrand existed between three go betweeners (XYZ) because talking to Talleyrand in person would cost a quarter of a million dollars. Americans soon negotiated and this act subtly started an undeclared war with France.

Henry Knox

was the first secretary of war; came to power in 1789; was the first to be entrusted with the infant army and navy.

Citizen Genet

He was a representative of the French Republic who came to America in order to recruit Americans to help fight in the French Revolution.

Strict constitution

idea of following the const. exactly, jefferson

Cabinet

A body of executive department heads that serve as the chief advisors to the President. Formed during the first years of Washington's Presidency, the original members of included the Sec. of State, of the Tres. and of War. extremely important to the presidency, because these people influence the most powerful man in the nation.

Whiskey Rebellion

A small rebellion, that began in Southwestern Pennsylvania in 1794 that was a challenge to the National Governments unjust use of an excise tax on an "economic medium of exchange"

Daniel Shays

a radical veteran of the Revolution. He led a rebellion. He felt he was fighting against a tyranny. He was sentenced to death but was later pardoned.

Implied powers

refers to the powers of the government found in the constitution in unwritten forms. Although some situations, such as the creation of the National Bank, are not specifically referred to in the constitution through the elastic clause they are not illegal or unconstitutional.Eventually this became an issue contributing to the formation of political parties.

Bank of the United States

either of the two National Banks, funded by the federal government and private investors, established by congress, the first in 1791 and the second in 1816

Pinckey Treaty

Gave America Free navigation of the Mississippi, large area of north Florida.

Jeffersonian Republicans

one of nations first political parties,stemming from the anti-federalists, emerged around 1792, gradually became today's Democratic party.were pro-French, liberal, and mostly made up of the middle class. They favored a weak central govt., and strong states' rights.

Tariff

a government tax on imports or exports

Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments of the Constitution,added in 1791 when it was adopted by the necessary number of states. It guarantees such civil liberties as freedom of speech, free press, and freedom of religion. Written by James Madison.

Alien and Sedition Acts

Contains four parts: 1. Raised the residence requirement for American citizenship from 5 to 14 years. 2. gave the President the power in peacetime to order any alien out of the country. 3. permitted the President in wartime to jail aliens when he wanted to. 4. key clause provided fines and jail penalties for anyone guilty of sedition. Was to remain in effect until the next Presidential inauguration.

Federalists

led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution

Agrarian

Means having to do with agriculture.the farmers and plantation owners of the south. This was the society that Jefferson wanted to see become the future of America. He appreciated the many virtuous and beneficial characteristics.

French Revolution

began in 1789 with some nonviolent restrictions on the king, but became more hostile in 1792 when France declared war on Austria. Seeking help from America, the French pointed to the Franco-American alliance of 1778. Not wanting to get involved for fear of damage to the trade business, Washington gave the Neutrality Proclamation, which made America neutral.

Battle of Fallen Timbers

An attack made by American General "Mad Anthony Wayne" against invading Indians from the northwest. The defeat of the Indians ended the alliance made with the British and Indians.

Judiciary Act of 1789

organized the Supreme Court, originally with five justices and a chief justice, along with several federal district and circuit courts. It also created the attorney general's office.

Excise tax

a tax on the manufacturing of an item. Helped Hamilton to achieve his theory on a strong central government, supported by the wealthy manufacturers. This tax mainly targeted poor Western front corn farmers (Whiskey). This was used to demonstrate the power of the Federal Government, and sparked the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794.

Jay's Treaty

a treaty which offered little concessions from Britain to the U.S. and greatly disturbed the Jeffersonians.was able to get Britain to say they would evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and pay damages for recent seizures of American ships. The British, however, would not promise to leave American ships alone in the future, and they decided that the Americans still owed British merchants for pre-Revolutionary war debts.

Washington's Farewell Address

Given in 1796, when he retired from office. It wasn't given orally, but was printed in newspapers. It did not concern foreign affairs; most of it was devoted to domestic problems. He stressed that we should stay away from permanent alliances with foreign countries; temporary alliances wouldn't be quite as dangerous, but they should be made only in "extraordinary emergencies". He also spoke against partisan bitterness.

Treaty of Greenville

Gave America all of Ohio after General Mad Anthony Wayne battled and defeated the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers.

Compact theory

was supported by Jefferson and Madison. meant that the thirteen states, by creating the federal government, had entered into a contract about its jurisdiction. The national government was the agent of the states. This meant that the individual states were the final judges of the national government's actions. The theory was the basis for the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions passed in 1798.

Convention of 1800

signed in Paris that ended France's peacetime military alliance with America. Napoleon was eager to sign this treaty so he could focus his attention on conquering Europe and perhaps create a New World empire in Louisiana. This ended the "quasi-war" between France and America.

XYZ affair

France and England start to seize American ships; starts an "unofficial war" btwn America and France; Causes the creation of 33 ships for a navy and ends long treaty with France

Nullification

the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress

Neutrality Proclamation

issued by George Washington, established isolationist policy, proclaimed government's official neutrality in widening European conflicts also warned American citizens about intervening on either side of conflict

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