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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. receptor
  2. gene
  3. steroids
  4. carbohydrates
  5. condensation reaction
  1. a a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses)
  2. b a sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides)
  3. c the type of protein that helps a cell respond to chemical stimuli; example: receptors built into the membrane of a nerve cell detect chemical signals released by other nerve cells
  4. d lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings
  5. e when two monomers connect to each other by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other through a loss of a molecule

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. a secondary structure that is a delicate coil held together by hydrogen bonding between every fourth amino acid
  2. specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells; considered proteins
  3. protein molecules that assist in the proper folding of other proteins; they do not specify the final structure of a protein, instead they keep the new polypeptide separated from "bad influences" in the cytoplasmic environment while it folds
  4. a polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins, and through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities; two types are DNA and RNA
  5. cells need these in order to exist because they make up cell membranes; has 2 fatty acids attached to glycerol instead of traditional 3 (triacylglycerol); always assemble into a double-layer aggregate because of hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail

5 True/False Questions

  1. transportthe type of protein that transports other substances; example: hemoglobin, the iron-containing protein of vertebrate blood, transports oxygen from lungs to other parts of the body


  2. polypeptidesmacromolecules; polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages; serve as storage material, hydrolyzed as needed to provide sugar for cells; building material for structures that protect a cell or an organism; architecture and function are determined by sugar monomers and by positions of glycosidic linkages


  3. hydrophobic interactionwhen two monomers connect to each other by a reaction in which a hydroxyl group covalently bonds to a hydrogen atom, which causes the loss of a water molecule in the process


  4. catalystschemical agents that selectively speed up chemical reactions without being consumed by the reaction; can be seen as workhorses that keep cells running by carrying out processes of life


  5. amino acidsorganic molecules possessing both carboxyl and amino groups


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