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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. phospholipids
  2. structural
  3. secondary structure
  4. amino acids
  5. lipid
  1. a the collection of coils and folds that result from hydrogen bonds between repeating constituents of the polypeptide backbone (not the amino acid sides)
  2. b one of a group of compounds, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that mix poorly, if at all, with water; they are not composed of true polymers, so they are generally not large enough to be considered macromolecules; they are hydrophobic because they contain few polar bonds and many hydrocarbon regions; they vary in form and function
  3. c the type of protein that supports an organism; example: insects and spiders use silk fibers for cocoons and webs, collagen and elastin provide fibrous framework in animal connective tissues; keratin is protein of hair, horns, feathers, etc.
  4. d cells need these in order to exist because they make up cell membranes; has 2 fatty acids attached to glycerol instead of traditional 3 (triacylglycerol); always assemble into a double-layer aggregate because of hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail
  5. e organic molecules possessing both carboxyl and amino groups

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. a covalent bond that results when two amino acids join through dehydration reaction
  2. a fat that consists of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; linkages that bond hydroxyl to carboxyl are called ester linkages
  3. the sugar connected to RNA; has one more oxygen atom than the other sugar associated with nucleicacids
  4. a sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides)
  5. the unraveling and loss of a protein's native shape due to alterations of its environment, such as pH, salt concentration, and temperature; this causes a protein to become biologically inactive

5 True/False Questions

  1. hydrophobic interactionwhen two monomers connect to each other by a reaction in which a hydroxyl group covalently bonds to a hydrogen atom, which causes the loss of a water molecule in the process


  2. saturated fatty acida fatty acid that has no double-bonded carbon atoms so that as many hydrogen atoms as possible are bonded to the carbon skeleton


  3. nucleotidea polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins, and through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities; two types are DNA and RNA


  4. receptora discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses)


  5. deoxyribonucleic acida double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine; it is capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins


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