Spheres of influence
Britain, France, Germany, Russia, and Japan. Special trading privileges and political influence in China
Open Doors Policy
All nations would have equal trading and development rights throughout all of China
The first took place from 1839-1842. British traders were importing opium from India into China, against the wishes of the Chinese government. The Chinese (Lin) blockaded British in their factories until they complied to hand over the Opium, Lin allowed the British to leave then destroyed a warehouse full of opium, and the British responded by sending a fleet of warships. The Treaty of Nanjing brought an end to the conflict. The treaty also ceded Hong Kong to Britain. The second took place from 1856-1860, and began when Chinese officials boarded a British ship and searched it. The French joined the British in sending an invasion force to China, and the city of Beijing was occupied before the conflict ended with a treaty. One of the British objectives in this was to increase trade with China, and that was essentially accomplished.
Nationalist leader, sought to unify China and end imperial rule. Succeeded by Chiang Kai-shek
Nationalist leader, competed with communists, 1926-1949. Briefly united against Japanese invasion during WWII. Fought civil war and lost. Fled with forces to Taiwan
Fought nationalists early 1930's. United against Japanese during WWII. Fought civil war 1945-1949 and defeated Chiang Kai-shek. Great leap forward and Cultural Revolution. Died 1976
To escape the nationalist party forces, the Communist Party army retreats north, marching some 8000 kilometers. Along the way, it boosts its support with local peasants, and recruits more personnel.
The Great Leap Forward
The Chinese communists wanted to organize the population of China to develop intense labor methods in the fields of agriculture and industrialization, gradually buy heavy machinery; not a lot, to show manpower rather than machines in order to bypass the slow method of industrialization
100 Flowers Campaign
Provide democracy for the intellectuals voice to criticize the government; Mao thought the critacizism would be minor, it was worse then he thought, eventually crushed those who spoke up
Communal kitchens where everyone in a specific neighborhood would go to eat their meals that were made there.
Mao Zedong doubted his collegues revolutionary commitment after they made economic reforms to bring China out of economic depression after the Great Leap Forward. Made these goals: Correct the Chinese Political Party, replace Mao's designated successors with leaders more faithful to his current thinking. Provide China's youth with a revolutionary experience, achieve some specific policy changes so as to make the educational, health care, and cultural systems less elitist. Wanted a 'classless' society. This is part of what?
China's urban youth mobilized together to support "Maoist thought". They encouraged criticism of any disloyalty to Mao, or anyone who had a Superior attitude.
Wanted "socialism with a capitalist face". Took over after Mao died in 1976. Architect of economic reforms. Did not allow political reform. Leader during the Tienanmen Square Uprising.
Had been with Deng and Mao on the Long March. Had suffered with Deng during the cultural revolution. 2nd in command, was open to critisism of the communist party and to hearing about reform ideas. His death from a heart attack sparked the student movement in Tienanmen Square.
Leader from provinces, close adviser to Deng Xiaoping. Reformer who advocated negotiating with students protesting in Tienanmen Square. Deng purged him from the party, sent to house arrest
Succeeded Deng Xiaoping, continued economic reforms
Current Chinese president, rapid economic growth, oversaw China's successful preparation for Olympics. Criticized by some for the handling of Tibet protests and negotiating with regimes for trade/economic privileges (ex. in Africa and Middle East)
One Child Policy
Deng made this policy to reduce the growing population. It says that the Han majority living in China may only have one child per family.
Tienanmen Square Uprising
After Hu Yaobang died, students started protesting here to demand democracy. Deng order troops to take whatever means necessary to win back the square, open fired on dense crowds in the square and surrounding streets