AP Biology: Chapter 35 (Plant Structure, Growth, & Development)

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Plasticity

An organism's ability to alter itself in response to local environmental conditions

Morphology

external form

Tissue

group of cells with a common function, structure, or both

Organ

consists of several types of tissues that carry out a particular function

Root System

All of a plant's roots that anchor it in the soil, absorb and transport minerals and water, and store food.

Shoot System

The aerial portion of a plant body, consisting of stems, leaves, and (in angiosperms) flowers.

Roots

An organ that anchors a vascular plant, absorbs nutrients & water, & often stores organic nutrients

Taproot System

consists of one main vertical root that develops from an embryonic root

Lateral Roots

A root that arises from the outermost layer of the pericycle of an established root.

Fibrous Root System

a mat of generally thin roots spreading out below the soil surface, with no root standing out as the main one

Adventitious

Describes any plant part that grows in an unusual location

Root Hairs

A tiny extension of a root epidermal cell, growing just behind the root tip and increasing surface area for absorption of water and minerals.

Stem

A vascular plant organ consisting of an alternating system of nodes and internodes that support the leaves and reproductive structures.

Nodes

the points at which leaves are attached

Internodes

the stem segments between nodes

Axillary Bud

a structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot, commonly called a branch

Terminal Bud

Embryonic tissue at the tip of a shoot, made up of developing leaves and a compact series of nodes and internodes.

Apical Dominance

Concentration of growth at the tip of a plant shoot, where a terminal bud partially inhibits axillary bud growth.

Leaf

the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants

Blade

A leaf like structure of a seaweed that provides most of the surface area for photosynthesis (the flattened portion of a typical leaf)

Petiole

The stalk of a leaf, which joins the leaf to a node of the stem.

Veins

A vascular bundle in a leaf

Tissue System

One or more tissues organized into a functional unit connecting the organs of a plant

Derminal Tissue System

The outer protective covering of plants

Epidermis

The dermal tissue system of nonwoody plants, usually consisting of a single layer of tightly packed cells.

Periderm

The protective coat that replaces the epidermis in plants during secondary growth, formed of the cork and cork cambium.

Cuticle

A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.

Xylem

Vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from roots to the rest of the plant.

Phloem

Vascular plant tissue consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant.

Stele

The vascular tissue of a stem or root.

Bundle Sheath

A protective covering around a leaf vein, consisting of one or more cell layers, usually parenchyma.

Vascular Tissue System

A system formed by xylem and phloem throughout a vascular plant, serving as a transport system for water and nutrients, respectively.

Vascular Cylinder

The central cylinder of vascular tissue in a root.

Vascular Bundle

A strand of vascular tissues (both xylem and phloem) in a stem or leaf.

Ground Tissue System

Plant tissues that are neither vascular nor dermal, fulfilling a variety of functions, such as storage, photosynthesis, and support.

Pith

ground tissue that is internal to the vascular tissue in a stem; in many monocot roots, parenchyma cells that form the central core of the vascular cylinder

Cortex

Ground tissue that is between the vascular tissue and dermal tissue in a root or dicot stem.

Protoplast

The contents of a plant cell exclusive of the cell wall.

Sclereid

A short, irregular sclerenchyma cell in nutshells and seed coats and scattered through the parenchyma of some plants.

Fibers

A lignified cell type that reinforces the xylem of angiosperms and functions in mechanical support; a slender, tapered sclerenchyma cell that usually occurs in bundles.

Tracheid

A long, tapered water-conducting cell that is dead at maturity and is found in the xylem of all vascular plants.

Vessels

Continuous water-conducting micropipes found in most angiosperms and a few nonflowering vascular plants.

Parenchyma Cells

A relatively unspecialized plant cell type that carries out most of the metabolism, synthesizes and stores organic products, and develops into a more differntiated cell type.

Collenchyma Cells

A flexible plant cell type that occurs in strands or cylinders that support young parts of the plants without restraining growth.

Sclerenchyma Cells

A rigid, supportive plant cell type usually lacking protoplasts and possessing thick secondary walls strengthened by lignin at maturity.

Vessel Elements

A short, wide, water conducting cell found in the xylem of most angiosperms and a few nonflowering vascular plants. Dead at maturity, vessel elements are aligned end to form micropipes called vessels.

Sieve Plates

An end wall in a sieve-tube member, which facilitates the flow of phloem sap in angiosperm sieve tubes.

Sieve Tube Members

A living cell that conducts sugars and other organic nutrients in the phloem of angiosperms. They form chains called sieve tubes.

Companion Cells

surround seive tube element, regulating the materials that are exchanged

Indeterminate Growth

A type of growth characteristic of plants, in which the organism continues to grow as long as it lives.

Determinate Growth

A type of growth characteristic of most animals and some plant organs, in which growth stops after a certain size is reached.

Annuals

A flowering plant that completes its entire life cycle in a single year or growing season.

Biennials

A flowering plant that requires two years to complete its life cycle.

Perennials

plants that live for more than two years

Meristems

Plant tissue that remains embryonic as long as the plant lives, allowing for indeterminate growth.

Apical Meristems

Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length.

Primary Growth

Growth produced by apical meristems, which lengthen stems and roots.

Herbaceous

characteristic of a nonwoody herb or plant part

Secondary Growth

Growth produced by lateral meristems, which thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants.

Lateral Meristems

A meristem that thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants. The vascular cambium and cork cambium are lateral meristems.

Vascular Cambium

A cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that adds layers of secondary vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem.

Cork Cambium

A cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that replaces the epidermis with thicker, tougher cork cells.

Initals

Cells that remain within an apical meristem as sources of new cells

Derivatives

New cells that are displaced from an apical meristem and continue to divide until the cells they produce become specialized.

Root Cap

A cone of cells at the tip of a plant root that protects the apical meristem.

Primary Plant Body

The tissues produced by apical meristems, which lengthen stems and roots.

Endodermis

The innermost layer of the cortex in plant roots; a cylinder one cell thick that forms the boundary between the cortex and the vascular cylinder.

Pericycle

The outermost layer of the vascular cylinder of a root, where lateral roots originate.

Leaf Primordia

Fingerlike projections along the flanks of a shoot apical meristem, from which leaves arise.

Stomata

A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant.

Guard Cells

The two cells that flank the stomatal pore and regulate the opening and closing of the pore.

Mesophyll

The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis.

Palisade Mesophyll

One or more layers of elongated photosynthetic cells on the upper part of a leaf; also called palisade parenchyma.

Spongy Mesophyll

Loosely arranged photosynthetic cells located below the palisade mesophyll cells in a leaf.

Leaf Traces

A small vascular bundle that extends from the vascular tissue of the stem through the petiole and into a leaf.

Bundle Sheath

A protective covering around a leaf vein, consisting of one or more cell layers, usually parenchyma.

Secondary Plant Growth

The tissues produced bythe vascular cambium & cork cambium, which thickens the stems & roots of woody plants

Fusiform Initials

Cells within the vascular cambrium that produce elongated cells such as trocheids, vessel elements, fibers, and sieve-tube members.

Ray Initials

Cells within the vascular cambrium that produce xylem and phloem rays, radial files that consist mostly of parenchyma cells.

Heartwood

Older layers of secondary xylem, closer to the center of a stem or root, that no longer transport xylem sap.

Sapwood

Outer layers of secondary xylem that still transport xylem sap.

Lenticels

Small raised areas in the bark of stems and roots that enable gas exchange between living cells and the outside air.

Bark

All tissues external to the vascular cambium, consisting mainly of the secondary phloem and layers of periderm.

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