Unit 2 Population and Migration

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A government policy concerned with limiting population growth.

Agriculture Revolution

The time when human begins first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.

Age Cohort

A group of people who share the same age.

Epidemiological Transition Model

The theory that says that there is a distinct cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition model. It can help explain how a country's population changes so dramatically.

Stationary Population Level

The level at which a national population ceases to grow

age distribution

The age structure of a population.

population explosion

The rapid acceleration of the population, in which the period of time it took to increase the population before, is exceptionally lower.

Age Distribution

How the population of an area is distributed by both gender and age. Sometimes called a population pyramid. There are two back-to-back bar graphs; one showing males and one showing females in a particular population in five-year age groups. This is important because you can tell from the age distribution important characteristic of a country, whether high guest worker population, they just had a war or a deadly disease and more.

Carrying capacity

This is the population level that can be supported within a certain area given the quantity of food, habitat, water and other life infrastructure present. This is important because it tells how many people an area will be able to support


Population of various age categories in an age-sex population pyramids. This is important because this can tell what state this country it is whether in Stage 3 or Stage 5 in the demographic transition model

Demographic equation

The formula that calculates population change. The formula finds the increase (or decrease) in a population. The formula is found by doing births minus deaths plus (or minus) net migration. This is important because it helps to determine which stage in the demographic transition model a country is in

Demographic momentum

This is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model

Demographic regions

Regions grouped together by the stage of the demographic transition model that most countries in the region are in. Cape Verde (Africa) is in Stage 2 (High Growth), Chile (Latin America) is in Stage 3 (Moderate Growth), and Denmark (Europe) is in Stage 4 (Low Growth). This is important because it shows how different parts of the world are in different stages of the demographic transition

Demographic Transition model

Model that uses population measures to help explain stages of development as well as level of development. It has 5 steps; Stage 1 is low growth, Stage 2 is High Growth, Stage 3 is Moderate Growth, and Stage 4 is Low Growth and Stage 5 although not officially a stage is a possible stage that includes zero or negative population group. This is important because this is the way our country and others countries around the world are transformed from a less developed country to a more developed country

Dependency ratio

The number of people who are too you or too old to work compared to the number of people in their productive years. This is important because this tells how many people each worker supports. For example the larger population of dependents, the greater financial burden on those who are working to support those who cannot

Diffusion of fertility control

The diffusion of fertility control is spread throughout the world. In the U.S it's below 2.1 in much of Africa it is above 4, if South America is between 2 and 3, in Europe it is below 2.1, in China and Russia it is below 2.1, and in much of the Middle East it is above 4. This is important because its shows how many kids a mother is having thus helping to see where the countries are growing rapidly and where countries are leveling off

Disease diffusion

There are two types, contagious and hierarchical. Hierarchical is along high density areas that spread from urban to rural areas. Contagious is spread through the density of people. This is important in determining how the disease spread so you can predict how it will spread

Doubling time

The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase. This is important because it can help project the countries population increase over the years and when its population will double


The proportion of earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement. This is important because its tells how much of the land has been built upon and how much land is left for us to build on

Infant mortality rate

(IMR) The annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age, compared with total live births. Its is expressed as the annual number of deaths among infants among infants per 1000 births rather than a percentage. This is important because it tell how developed a country is, if they have a high IMR they are an LDC and if it is low they are an MDC


This is when the projection population show exponential growth, sometimes shape as the letter "j". This is important because if the population grows exponential our resource use will go up exponential and so will our use as well as a greater demand for food and more


This is an adaptation that has become less helpful than harmful. This relates to human geography because it has become less and less suitable and more of a problem or hindrance in its own right, as time goes on. Which shows as the world changes so do the things surrounding it

Malthus, Thomas

Was one of the first to argue that the worlds rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food population. This is important because he brought up the point that we may be outrunning our supplies because of our exponentially growing population


There are two useful ways to measure mortality infant mortality rate and life expectancy. The IMR reflect a country's health care system and life expectancy measures the average number of years a baby can expect to live. This is important because you can use a countries mortality rate to determine important features about a country


(aka Crude Birth Rate) This is the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area, it is expressed as number of birth in year to every 1000 people alive in the society. This is important because it tells you the rate a country is having babies as well as how fast you can expect that population to grow

Neo-Malthusian theory

Theory that builds upon Malthus' thoughts on overpopulation. Takes into count two factors that Malthus did not: population growth in LDC's, and outstripping of resources other than foodRecognizes that population growth in LDC's is from the transfer of medical talents from MDC's but not the wealth that would provide food and resources


The relationship between the number of people on Earth, and the availability of resources. Problems result when an area's population exceeds the capacity of the environment to support them at an acceptable standard of living

Population densities

The frequency with which something occurs in space.

Arithmetic density

The total number of people in an area divided by the total area. Used to compare distribution of population in different countries.

Physiological density

The number of persons per unit of area suitable for human habitation. Gives more accurate a picture how "crowded" a country is.

Agricultural density

The number of farmers per unit of area of farmland. May mean a country has inefficient agriculture and has difficulty growing enough food.

Population distributions

The arrangement of a people across space. The main distributions are concentrated in Asia and Europe. Globally, most people are found in the northern hemisphere, along coastal waterways

Population explosion

Asudden increase or burst in the population in either a certain geographical area or worldwideOccurred in the late 18th and early 19th centuries because several countries moved on to stage 2 of the DTM. Can trace factors that lead to these explosions

Population projection

Predicts the future population of an area or the world.Helps predict future problems with population such as overpopulation or under population of a certain race or ethnicity

Population pyramid

Population displayed by age and gender on a bar graph. Shape is determined primarily by crude birth rate. Shows age distribution and sex ratio.


Traces the cyclical movement upwards and downwards in a graph. So named for its shape as the letter "s". Relates to growth and decline in the natural increase

Sex ratio

The number of males per hundred females in the population. Depends on birth and death rates, immigration. Men have higher death rates but also higher birth rates. Immigration usually means more males because they can make the journey

Standard of living

Refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way they are distributed within a population. Higher standards of living are found in MDC's rather than LDC's. Can help trace development


Providing the best outcomes for human and natural environments both in the present and for the future. Relates to development that meets today's needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs


It is the opposite of overpopulation and refers to a sharp drop or decrease in a region.

Zero population growth

When the crude birth rate equals the crude death rate and the natural increase rate approaches zero. Often applied to countries in stage 4 of the demographic transition model

Rate of natural increase

The percentage by which a population grows in a year. CBR-CDR = NIR Excludes migration. Affects the population and a country's or area's ability to support that population

Chronic diseases

Generally long-lasting afflictions now more common because of higher life expectancies.

dot map

Map where one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenan, such as population.

life expectancy

A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live.


The uninhabited,or very sparsely inhabited portions of the world.


Name given to large supercities that have merged into large urban areas.

crude birth rate

The number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population

child mortality rate

The number of children who die between the first and fifth years of their lives in a population

eugenic population policies

Government policies designed to favor one racial sector over another

expansive population policies

Government policies designed to encourage larger family size

restrictive population policies

Government policies designed to curb, or reduce, the number of children born

crude death rate

The number of deaths yearly per thousand people in a population

Industrial Revolution

A series of improvements in industrial technology that transfomed the process of manufacturing goods. The increase in wealth allowed countries to improve living conditions for its citizens which reduced mortality rates and led to a population explosion.

Medical Revolution

Medical technology invented in North America and Europe that is diffused to poorer countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Improved medical practices have eliminated traditional causes of death and enable more people to live longer and healthier lives without their country necessarily becoming wealthier.


The scientifc study of population characteristics

Total Fertility Rate

The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.

migration selectivity

Only people exhibiting certain characteristics in a population choosing to migrate.

space-time prism

The space-time prisms enclose the locations a person can reach by taking into account various time constraints.


The permanent move to a new location.


The migration from a location.

Brain Drain

Large-scale emigration by talented people


A law that places maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year


Migration to a location.

net migration

The difference between the number of immigrants (in) and the number of emigrants (out).


Seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas.

periodic movement

Motion that recurs over and over and the period of time required for each recurrence remains the same.

distance decay

The idea that contact and influence diminishes with increasing distance and eventually disappears.

gravity model

A model that that holds that the use of a service is directly related to the number of people in a location and the distance people must travel to reach the service

Pull Factor

Factors that induce people to move to a new place


People who are forced to move from their home country and may not return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion


To travel regularly over some distance

seasonal movement

Someone who moves because of the weather, crops or work

internal migration

Permanent movement within a particular country

interregional migration

Permanent movement within one region of a country

Forced Migration

A forced movement of large groups of people from homelands to new areas; A group of people forced out of their region

Wilbur Zelinsky

One of Americas most prominent cultural geographers; equated migration to the demographic transition model. In other words, the stage of demographic transition (population growth) determines the motives and distance of migration.


All types of movement from one location to another location.

Intraregional migration

Permanent movement from one region of a country to another region of the same country.

Voluntary Migration

Permanent movement undertaken by choice

Chain Migration

Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there

Undocumented Immigrants

People who enter a country without proper documents

Ravenstein's Laws of Migration

A set of 11 "laws" that can be organized into three groups: the reasons why migrants move, the distance they typically move, and their characteristics.

Channelized Migration

Type of migration in which historical patterns matter

Guest Workers

Wokers who migrate to the more developed countires of Northern and Western Europe in search of higher paid jobs.


Net migration from urban to rual areas in more devloped countries

activity space

Area where people move freely on rounds of regular activity, sharing that space with others who are also about their daily affairs

cyclic movement

Types of movement that are short-term, repetitive, or circular that recur on a daily, weekly, monthly, seasonal, or annual basis

migration transition

A change in migration pattern of a society that results from industrialization, population, and other social and economic changes that also produces the demographic transition. Basically, just as each stage of the Demographic Transition predicts population growth, the epidemological transition predicts causes of death, the migration transition seeks to explain motives, distance, and location of human movement.

migration stream

The flow of migration: immigration and emigration patterns that appear when large numbers of people move from one location to another.

step migration

Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and then later to a town or city.

counter migration

When governments send back migrants caught entering their country illegally, or an opposite flow of emigration to a flow of immigration.


Migrating for ecological or environmental reasons

personal space

The area around a person that they define as their domain or territory


Short-term, repetitive or cyclic movements that recur on a regular basis

push factor

Factors that induce people to leave old residences

intervening obstacle

An environmental, cultural, or political feature that hinders movement

international migration

Permanent movement from one country to another

immigration laws

All laws, conventions, treaties of a country involving immigration, exclusion, deportation or expulsion of foreign-born (alien) residents


seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas


as one region or state expands in economic prosperity, it must engulf regions nearby to ensure ongoing economic and political success

crop rotation

the practice of growing a series of dissimilar types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons for various benefits such as to avoid the build up of pathogens and pests that often occurs when one species is continuously cropped

planned economy

an economic system in which the government or workers' councils manages the economy

plant domestication

when people cultivate or "care for" crops for agriculture

Intensive subsistence agriculture

The practice of subsistence farming, with the inclusion of more intensive work per land unit.

Hunting and gathering

The process of living that involves hunting for meat, gathering edible produce, and traveling frequently.

Von Thunen, Johann Heinrich

German farmer who initially proposed model which suggested the trend of crop location in commercial farming.

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