Neuromusclar and Nervous System Terms and Anatomy

Created by swimmom2012 

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Anatomy of the brain

Amygdala

*LOCATION = TEMPORAL LOBE B. HEMISPHERES
*Almond-shaped neural structure in the
*Part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM
*MAIN FUNCTION = EMOTIONAL / SOCIAL PROCESSING
FEAR / PLEASURE RESPONSES, AROUSAL, PROCESSING MEMORY, FORMS EMOTIONAL MEMORIES

Arachnoid Mater

*Delicate middle layer of the meninges; the arachnoid membrane is loosely attached to the pia mater by weblike fibers, which allow for the subarachnoid space

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

*Sympathetic-Fight or Flight-Norepinephrine neurotransmitters
*Parasympathetic-concerving/restoring energy
*Acetylcholine Neurotransmitter
*Inhibitory response

Basal Ganglia

*LOCATION = WHITE MATER OF CEREBRUM
*GRAY MATTER masses.
*Include:
CAUDADE NUCLEI / PUTAMEN / GLOBUS PALLIDUS / SUBSTANTIA NIGRA
*Control and coordinate VOLUNTARY MVMT, POSTURE, MM TONE CONTRO OF MOTOR RESPONSE
*Cell death in the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA contributes to PARKINSONS / HUNTINGTONS DISEASE
*Damage = INVOLUNTARY MM DISORDERS

Blood Supply of the Brain

*Four major arteries:
*2 vertebral arteries and 2 internal carotid arteries
*They give rise to numerous arteries
*CIRCLE OF WILLIS plays an important role

Brain

*CNS - 3 Parts = FOREBRAIN, MIDBRAIN, HINDBRAIN

Brain Stem

*Contains = MEDULLA, PONS & MIDBRAIN
*Relay station = Sends messages b/w BODY ↔ CEREBRAL CORTEX
*REGULATES PRIMITIVE FUNCTIONS
*Contains = Centers that control RESPIRATION, HR, BP
*RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM = located in midbrain, pons, medulla, portions of thalamus
****Most CRANIAL NERVES ORIGINATE IN BS****

Calcarine Sulcus

*Separates = OCCIPITAL Lobe into SUPERIOR & INFERIOR ½'s

Central Sulcus (Sulcus of Rolando)

*Separates = FRONTAL and PARIETAL lobes laterally

Cerebellum

*Location = POST. TO BRAIN, BELOW OCCIPITAL LOBE
*Function = controls COORDINATION of MVMT & BALANCE, POSTURE/BALANCE - MM TONE AND POSITIONING OF EXTREMITIES IN SPACE.
*Responsible for "FINE TUNING MVMTS"
*Controlls = ability to perform RAPID ALTERNATING MVMTS
*Damage = IPSIOLATERAL IMPAIRMANTS

Cerebral Artery impairments

*ACA=personality changes, conscious unresponsiveness
Bilat. occulision=parap;egia
*MCA=Bilat. occulision=contralateral hemiplegia, sensory impairment (Most CVA occur from here)
*PCA=Thalamic Pain Syndrome (abnormal sensation of pain temp., touch and proprioception), Cortical blindness

Cerebral Cortex

Extensive outer layer of GRAY MATTER of the Cerebral hemisphere largely responsible for HIGHER BRAIN FUNCTIONS such as THINKING / PLANNING / JUDGEMENT / PROCESSES SENSORY INFO AND DIRECTS MVMT
Body's ultimate control and information-processing center

Cerebral Spinal Fluid

*Solution that fills the hollow cavities of the brain and circulates around the brain and spinal cord.
*Provides nourishment, cushions, and removes wastes.

Characteristics of Autonomic Nervous System

*Part of the PNS = controls - GLANDS AND MM OF INTERNAL organs (such as the HEART)
*SYMPATHETIC division AROUSES
*PARASYMPATHETIC division CALMS

Characteristics of PNS

*Encased in fiberous sheeth (relatively unprotected)
*MOTOR Spinal Nerves (ANTERIOR ROOT) carry motor info AWAY from the CNS (EFFERENT FIBERS)
*SENSORY Spinal Nerves (POSTERIOR ROOT) carry sensation TO CNS (AFFERENT FIBERS)
*Ganglia-clusters of cells-give rise to PNS. and CNS nerve fibers.
*STIMULATING RESPONSE

Charcteristics of CNS

*Integration and coordination
*Covered in a system of meninges-suspended in CSF
*Protected by skull and veterbral column
*Gray Matter-unmyelinated neurons, cappillaries, glial cells, cell bodies and dendrites
*White Matter-myelinated axons, nerve fibers w/o dendrites
White Matter of SC=3 funiculi (ant., post., lateral)

CNS

*Brain=Forebrain, midbrain, Hindbrain
*Brain Stem=Midbrain, Pons, Medulla Oblongata
*Spinal Cord=Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral, Coccygeal

Corpus Collosum

*Large band of neural fibers connecting two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

Diencephalon

*LOCATION = beneath cerebral hemispheres
*Contains =
Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Epithalamus, Optic Tracts and Optic Haiasm, Infundibulum, Posterior Pituitary gland, Pineal gland, Limbic system and Third Ventricle.

Diencephalon

*This lobe is responsible for BODY TEMP. REGULATION, PITUITARY HORMONE CONTROL, ANS RESPONSES
*Includes: thalamus, epithalamus, Hypothalamus,
*Located deep to the cerebral hemispheres,
*Connects the brainstem with the cerebrum,
*Contains the thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus

Dura Mater

*Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord

Dural Space

...

Epidural Space

*B/W the SKULL and OUTER DURA mater that can be abnormally occupied.

Epithalamus

*1⁰ Represented by the PINEAL GLAND
*Secretes MELATONIN
*Involved w/ CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS - INTERNAL CLOCK - EMOTIONS - MOTOR PATHWAY REGULATION - Select

Fetal Development of Brain (3)

Forebrain = divides → Anterior / Posterior portions:
*Telencephalon (Anterior)
*Diencephalon (Posterior)
*Midbrain = Mesencephalon stays the same
*Hindbrain = partially divides into two parts:
*metencephalon
*myelencephalon

Fetal Development of Brain (4)

Resulting 5 cavities persist in the mature brain as fluid-filled spaces called ventricles
Forebrain (anterior)=>Cerebrum and Basal Ganglia
Forebrain (posterior)=>Diencephalon
Midbrain=Midbrain
Hindbrain=>Cerebellum, Pons, Medulla Oblongata

Fetal Development of the Brain (1)

*Begins as a Neural tube

Fetal Development of the Brain (2)
Neural tube forms into a tubular structure with 3 cavities. Neural tube stays intact

*prosencephalon (Forebrain)
*Mesencephalon (Midbrain)
*Rhombencephalon (Hindbrain)
*Neural Tube

Fissure

*A long narrow slit or groove that divides an organ into lobes

Flow of Cerebral Spinal Fluid

*Made in the CHORICOID PLEXUS located in the LATERAL VENTRICLES and circulates down to the 3RD VENTRICLE to the CEREBRAL AQUADUCT then to the 4TH VENTRICLE to the SPINAL CORD and finally back up to the SUBARACHNOID SPACE

Forebrain

Prosencephalon: divides to form the Telencephalon and Diencephalon
Largest, most complicated, and most advanced of the three divisions of the brain; comprises the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, basal ganglia, corpus callosum, and cortex,

Frontal Lobe

*Function = Control → VOL. MVMT, (Primary motor cortex / Precentral gyrus) INTELLECT, ORIENTATION, SPEECH, BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY, TEMPER

*BROCA's area (L SIDE), Speech, concentration,
*Prefrontal cortex: Controls emotions and judgement

Gyri

*ELEVATED ridges on CORTICAL SURFACE of CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE = increase surface area & provide space for additional cortical neurons

Hindbrain

*CEREBELLUM, PONS, MEDULLA

*Function = INVOLUNTARY PROCESSES - BP, BODY T⁰, HR, BREATHING, SLEEP CYCLE

Hippocampus

*LOCATION = Temporal Lobe
*PURPOSE = Forming / Storing NEW MEMORIES

Hypothalamus

*Receives / integrates info from ANS - REGULATING HORMONES
*LOCATION = below the THALAMUS
*MAIN FUNCTION = CONTRL BODY T⁰, APPETITE, SLEEP SEXUAL DESIRE, EMOTIONS (FEAR). REGULATES ADRENAL GLANDS, PITUITARY GLAND
*Regulates the PARASYM/ SYM NS

Impairments of Frontal Lobe

*Contralateral weakness
*Perseveration, inattention
*Contralateral head and eye paralysis
*Personality changes, antisocial behavior
*Ataxia, primitive reflexes
*Broca's aphasia (language deficits)
*Delayed or poor initiation

Impairments of Occipital Lobe

*Homonymoous hemianopsia
*Impaired extraocular muscle movement
*Impaired color recognition
*reading and writing impairment
*Cortical blindness (Bilateral Lobe involvement)

Impairments of Parietal Lobe

*DOMINANT HEMISPHERE (L) = Agraphia, finger Agnosia, Alexia
*NON-DOMINANT HEMISPHERE (R) = Constructional / *Dressing Apraxia, Anosognosia
*Contralateral Sensory Deficits
*Impaired LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION
*Impaired TASTE

Impairments of Temporal Lobe

*LEARNING Deficits
*Wernicke's Aphasia (Receptive deficits)
*Antisocial / Aggressive behavior
*Difficulty w/ FACIAL EXPRESSION
*↓ MEMORY / MEMORY LOSS
*∅ CATEGORIZE OBJECTS

Impairments of the Cerebellum

*Ataxia
*Poor Coordinaiton
*Tremor
*Ipsilateral facial sensory loss
*Dysdiadochokinesia
*Balance deficits
*Nystagmus
*Hypermetria
*Postural reflexe deficits

infundibulum

*A stalk that attaches the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus.

Interhemispheric Fissure (Longitudinal Fissure)

*Separates L & R cerebral hemispheres

Interventricular foramen

*Channels that allow CSF produced in the lateral ventricles to reach the 3RD VENTRICLE and then the rest of the brain's ventricular system.

Left Cerebellum

*Controls left side of body
*Responsible for LANGUAGE, LOGIC, SPEECH CENTER
*MATH/SCIENCE SIDE
*Right arm/Leg weakness

Left Hemisphere of brain

*Language,
*Sequence of Mvmts,
*Produce written/Spoken language (BROCA'S AREA), *Analytical,
*Logical, Math Calculations, + emotions,

Limbic System

*LOCATION = BORDER OF BRAINSTEM / CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES
*Involved in emotional behavior,
doughnut-shaped system of neural structures
*Associated with EMOTIONS - FEAR and AGGRESSION drives such as those for FOOD / SEX.
*Includes the HIPPOCAMPUS / AMYGDALA / HYPOTHALMUS

Lobe

*Major division of the brain,
*Large area of the cerebrum.
*Each lobe is named for the bone of the cranium that is above it:*

Lobes of the Brain

Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal

Medulla Oblongata

*SURFACE = WHITE MATTER
*INTERIOR = GRAY MATTER
*INFLUENCES AUTONOMIC NERVOUS ACTIVITY (Vasodilation/vasoconstriction)
*Regulates = RESPIRATION & HR
*Reflex Center = VOMITING COUGHING, SNEEZING
*Motor Tracks cross here.
*Damage = Causes → CONTRALATERAL IMPAIRMENT

Meninges

*Three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord,
*Dura mater=outer most; lines the periosteum of skull; protects the brain
*Arachnoid mater=Middle menige; impermeabel; loose:
*Pia mater=inner most meniges; covers contours of brain; forms the chorid plexus in ventricular system
which provide protection, support & small amounts of nourishment

Mesencephalon

*ANOTHER TERM FOR MIDBRAIN

Midbrain

*COMPONENT OF BS
*Location = BASE OF BRAIN - ABOVE SC
*Connects = FOREBRAIN / HINDBRAIN
*Function = LG RELAY AREA FOR INFO PASSING FROM CEREBRUM / CEREBELLUM / AND SC
*Reflex center = VISUAL, AUDITORY, TACTILE RESPONSES

Occipital Lobe

*Main processing area for VISUAL INFO
*Process info = COLOR, LIGHT, SHAPES
*Judgement of DISTANCE, Seeing in 3D

Parietal Lobe

*Associated w/ = SENSATION OF TOUCH, KINESTHESIA, *PERCEPTION OF VIBRATION AND T⁰
*Meaning to OBJECTS**
*Interprets language /words
*Spacial/visual perception
**Receives info from other areas of brain regarding = HEARING, VISION, MOTOR, SENSORY, MEMORY.**

Parieto-Occipital Sulcus

*Separates = OCCIPITAL from the PARIETAL lobe

Parts of the Forebrain

...

Parts of the Hindbrain

Medulla
Pons
Cerebellum

Pia Mater

*Innermost layer around the brain, attached to the nervous tissue of the brain and spinal cord and follows all the contours of these structures -
*Holds blood vessels that supply NUTRIENTS and O₂ → brain and spinal cord.
*Forms the CHOROID PLEXUS in the VENTRICULAR SYS

pineal gland

*Produces the hormone MELATONIN = CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS, INTERNAL CLOCK,

Pituitary gland

*The endocrine system's most influential gland.
*Under the influence of the HYPOTHALAMUS it regulates GROWTH and controls other ENDOCRINE GLANDS

PNS

*Cranial Nerves and Ganglia-12 pair-exit skull via foramina
*Spinal Nerves and Ganglia/Plexus-31 pair
8 cervical; 12 thoracic; 5 Lumbar; 5 Sacral; 1 coccygeal

Pons

*Location = SUPERIOR TO MEDULLA
*Function = A w/ RR / Assoc w/ Orientation of head in relation to VISUAL and AUDITORY STIMULI
*Cranial Nerves V-VIII (5-8)

Post Central Gyrus

*Posterior to the CENTRAL SULCUS
*1⁰ Somatosensory Cortex
*1⁰ receiving area for SENSORY INFO from the PERIPHERY (trunk and extremities).

Pre-Central Gyrus

*Immediately in front of the CENTRAL SULCUS
*1⁰ MOTOR CORTEX = Controls all VOLUNTARY SKELETAL MM MVMTS.,

Rhomboencephalon

*HIND BRAIN = develops the back of the brain - divided into the Myencephalon and Metacephalon

Right Cerebellum

*Controls right side of body
*Left arm/leg weakness
*Responsible for SHAPE RECOGNITION, FACE *RECOGNITION drawing shapes.SPATIAL

Right Hemisphere of the Brain

*Non-Verbal communication /
*Processes Holisticly,
*Artistic,
*Hand-Eye coordination,
*Spatial relationships,
*Body image awareness,
*Kinesthetic Awareness

Subarachnoid space

*Beneath the ARACHNOID MEMBRANE and above PIA MATTER
*Contains the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID and the CIRCULATORY SYS for the CEREBRAL CORTEX

Subdural space

*Seperates DURA MATTER and ARACHNOID MATTER

Subthalamus

*LOCATION = B/W THALAMUS - HYPOTHALMAS
*Regulates MVTS produced by the SKELETAL MMS.
*Assoc. w/ BASAL GANGLIA / SUBSTANTIA NIGRA

Sulci

*Shallow grooves on CEREBRAL CORTEX
*SHALLOW grooves that separate GYRI

Supporting Systems of the Brain and Spinal Cord

...

sylvian Fissure (Central Fissure)

*Anterior portion = Separates the TEMPORAL from FRONTAL lobe
*Posterior Portion = Separates TEMPORAL from PARIETAL

Telencephalon

*The cerebral hemispheres; one of the two divisions of the forebrain (the other is the diencephalon).,
*A subdivision of the brain that, along with the diencephalon, makes up the prosencephalon (forebrain); cerebral hemispheres

Temporal Lobe

*R Side = VISUAL MEMEORY/ A in RECOGNITION of OBJECTS & FACES
*L Side = VERBAL / GENERAL MEMORY, A in understanding LANGUAGE.
*REAR = Ability to Interpret EMOTIONS / REACTIONS of others.
*Wernicke's Area (L Hemisphere); ability to UNDERSTAND & PRODUCE meaningful SPEECH
*General MEMEORY
*1⁰ AUDITORY CORTEX
*1⁰ AUDITORY PROCESSING / OLFACTION

Thalamus

*LOCATION = TOP OF BRAINSTEM
*RELAY/ PROCESSING STATION
*Coordingates SENSORY PERCEPTION / MVMT.
*∅ OLFACTORY.
*THALMIC PAIN SYNDROME

Ventricles

-Cavities between the cerebrum and brain stem
-Contain cerebrospinal fluid

Ventricular System

*Designed to protect and nourish the brain, comprised of four ventricles and multiple foramen that allow the passage of cerebrospinal fluid.

Vermis

*Connects the two hemispheres of the cerebellum

Vertebral-Basilar Artery Impairment

*Loss of consciousness,
*Hemiplegia or quadriplegia,
*Comatose or vegetative state,
*Inability to speak,
*Locked-in syndrome,
*Vertigo,
*Nystagmus,
*Dysphagia,
*Dysarthria,
*Syncope,
*Ataxia

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