Learning, Chance Chapters 1-12

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SAFMEDS for PSY309:02 at the University of Mississippi Based on Chapters 1 - 12 of Chance (2009) Learning & Behavior: Active Learning Edition

Learning: A _______ in behavior due to experience

change

___________: A change in behavior due to experience

Learning

___________: A decrease in the intensity or probability of a reflex response resulting from repeated exposure to a stimulus that elicits that response

Habituation

Habituation: A ________ in the intensity or probability of a reflex response resulting from repeated exposure to a stimulus that elicits that response

decrease

___________: A relationship between a specific event and a simple, involuntary response to that event

Reflex

Modal action pattern: A series of interrelated acts found in all or nearly all members of a ___________:

Species

___________: An increase in the intensity or probability of a reflex response resulting from earlier exposure to a stimulus that elicits that response

Sensitization

Sensitization: An ___________ in the intensity or probability of a reflex response resulting from earlier exposure to a stimulus that elicits that response

Increase

___________: Any change in a gene

Mutation

Mutation: Any ___________ in a gene

Change

___________: Any event that affects, or is capable of affecting, behavior

Stimulus

Stimulus: Any event that ___________ or is capable of affecting behavior

affects

General behavior trait: Any general behavioral tendency that is strongly influenced by ___________

genes

___________: Any stimulus that reliably elicits a fixed action pattern

Releasing stimulus

Releasing stimulus: Any stimulus that reliably ___________ a fixed action pattern

elicits

Behavior: Actions of the ___________ organism that can be measured

whole

___________: Actions of the whole organism that can be measured

Behavior

___________: the development or evolutionary history of a species

Phylogeny

Phylogeny: the development or evolutionary history of a ________

species

___________: development or life history of an individual organism

Ontogeny

Ontogeny: development or life history of an ___________

organism

___________: Any stimulus the removal of which is reinforcing; characterizing an event that is likely to be avoided

Aversive

Aversive: Any stimulus the ___________ of which is reinforcing; characterizing an event that is likely to be avoided

removal

_________ stimulus: Any stimulus the presence of which is reinforcing

Appetitive

___________: A graphic record of behavior, each point of which reflects the total number of times a behavior has been performed as of that time

Cumulative record

___________: A research design in which the independent variable is made to vary at different times for the same subject

Within-subject

___________: Axis along which the unit of time is plotted

X-axis

X-axis (abscissa): Axis along which the unit of ___________ is plotted

time

___________: Axis along which the dimension of the response is plotted

y-axis

y-axis (ordinate): Axis along which the dimension of the ___________ is plotted

behavior

___________: time-series research design with repeated baseline and intervention conditions

ABAB

ABAB design: time-series research design with ___________ baseline and intervention conditions

repeated

___________: Time-series research design in which two or more interventions alternate systematically

ATD

alternating-treatments design: Time-series research design in which two or more interventions ___________

alternate systematically

___________: time-series research design that involves successively changing the criterion for delivering consequences

changing criterion

changing criterion design: time-series research design that involves successively changing the criterion for ___________

delivering consequences

___________: research design with repeated treatments across different situations

multiple-baseline

___________: An experimental design in which the independent variable is made to vary across two or more groups of subjects

Between-subjects experiment

___________: First- or secondhand reports of personal experience

Anecdotal evidence

___________: period of observation but no intervention

baseline

___________: In an experiment, the variable that the researcher manipulates

Independent variable

Independent variable: In an experiment, the variable that the researcher ___________

manipulates

___________: The variable by which the outcome of an experiment is measured

Dependent variable

Dependent variable: The variable by which the outcome of an experiment is ___________

measured

Pavlovian Extinction: the procedure of repeatedly presenting a CS without the ___________

US (unconditioned stimulus)

Pavlovian ___________: the procedure of repeatedly presenting a CS without the US

Extinction

Operant Extinction: the procedure of ___________ the reinforcers that maintain a behavior

withholding

Operant ___________: the procedure of withholding the reinforcers that maintain a behavior

Extinction

___________: events dependent on the appearance of a stimulus

Stimulus contingent

___________: events dependent on the appearance of a behavior

Response contingent

___________ conditioning: A Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which the CS and US occur together in time

Simultaneous

___________ conditioning: A Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which the CS begins and ends before the US is presented

Trace

___________ conditioning: A Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which the CS starts before, and then overlaps with, the US

Delayed

___________ conditioning: A Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which the US precedes the CS

Backward

___________: A variation of Pavlovian conditioning in which a stimulus is paired, not with a US, but with a well-established CS

Higher-order

___________: Failure of a stimulus that is part of a compound stimulus to become a CS

Overshadowing

___________: Failure of a stimulus to become a CS when it is part of a compound stimulus that includes an effective CS

Blocking

___________: In Pavlovian discrimination training, the stimulus that is regularly paired with a US

CS+

___________: In Pavlovian discrimination training, the stimulus that regularly appears in the absence of the US

CS-

Contiguity: ___________ of events in time (temporal contiguity) or space (spatial contiguity)

nearness

___________: The interval between the CS and US

Interstimulus interval (ISI)

___________: The interval separating the trials of a discrete trial procedure

Intertrial interval

Unconditional response: The response ___________ by an unconditional stimulus

elicited

___________: The response elicited by an unconditional stimulus

Unconditional response (UR)

___________: the response elicited by a conditional stimulus

Conditional response (CR)

Conditional response: the response elicited by a ___________ stimulus

conditional

___________: The stimulus that elicits a conditional response

Conditional stimulus (CS)

___________: The stimulus that elicits an unconditional response

Unconditional stimulus (US)

___________: The sudden reappearance of a behavior following its extinction

Spontaneous recovery

___________ therapy: A form of counterconditioning in which a CS is paired with an aversive US

Aversion

Systematic ___________: A form of counterconditioning for treating phobias in which a person imagines progressively stronger forms of the frightening CS while relaxed It

desensitization

___________ desensitization: A form of counterconditioning for treating phobias in which a person imagines progressively stronger forms of the frightening CS while relaxed It

Systematic

___________: A reduction in the rate of responding due to the noncontingent presentation of an aversive CS

Conditioned suppression

___________: An aversion, acquired through Pavlovian conditioning, to foods with a particular properties

Conditioned taste aversion

___________ therapy: Any of several forms of counterconditioning in which a person is gradually exposed to a feared stimulus

Exposure

___________: The use of Pavlovian conditioning to reverse the unwanted effects of prior conditioning

Counterconditioning

___________ chaining: A procedure in which training begins with the first response in the chain and adds subsequent links in order

Forward

Forward chaining: A procedure in which training begins with the _____ response in the chain and adds subsequent links in order

first

___________ chaining: A procedure in which training begins with the last link in the chain and adds preceding links in reverse order

Backward

___________ learning: A form of negative reinforcement in which the subject first learns to escape, and then to avoid, an aversive

Escape-avoidance

Satiation: A ___________ in the effectiveness of a reinforcer due to exposure to or consumption of the reinforcer

reduction

___________: A reduction in the effectiveness of a reinforcer due to exposure to or consumption of the reinforcer

Satiation

___________ reinforcement: A procedure that increases behavior in which a behavior is followed by the presentation of, or an increase in the intensity of, a stimulus

Positive

___________ reinforcement: A procedure that increases behavior in which a behavior is followed by the removal of, or a decrease in the intensity of, a stimulus

Negative

Positive reinforcement: A procedure that increases behavior in which a behavior is followed by the ___________ of, or an increase in the intensity of, a stimulus

presentation

Negative reinforcement: A procedure that increases behavior in which a behavior is followed by the ___________ of, or a decrease in the intensity of, a stimulus

removal

___________: A sudden increase in the rate of behavior during the early stages of extinction

Extinction burst

Extinction burst: A sudden ___________ in the rate of behavior during the early stages of extinction

increase

___________: A neurotransmitter that is thought to be important in reinforcement More commonly known as adrenaline

Epinephrine

___________ procedure: A training procedure in which a behavior may be repeated any number of times

Free operant

___________ procedure: An operant training procedure in which performance of a behavior defines the end of a trial

Discrete trials

___________ learning: Any procedure in which a behavior becomes stronger or weaker (eg, more or less likely to occur), depending on its consequences

Operant

___________ reinforcer: Any reinforcer that has acquired its reinforcing properties through its association with other reinforcers

Secondary

Secondary reinforcer: Any reinforcer that has ___________ its reinforcing properties through its association with other reinforcers

acquired

___________ reinforcer: Any reinforcer that is not dependent on another reinforcer for its reinforcing properties

Primary

___________ reinforcer: Any reinforcing event that follows automatically (naturally) from a behavior

Natural

___________ reinforcer: Any reinforcing event that has been arranged by someone, usually for the purpose of modifying behavior

Contrived

Contrived reinforcer: Any reinforcing event that has been ___________ by someone, usually for the purpose of modifying behavior

arranged

___________ operation: Anything that establishes conditions that improve the effectiveness of a reinforcer Also called establishing operation

Motivating

___________: In operant training, the procedure of establishing a behavior chain

Chaining

Shaping: In operant training, the procedure of reinforcing successive ___________of a desired behavior

approximations

___________: In operant training, the procedure of reinforcing successive approximations of a desired behavior

Shaping

___________: One of the brain's major neurotransmitters that is thought to play an important role in reinforcement

Dopamine

___________: The essential elements of operant learning, often represented by the letters ABC

Three-term contingency

Premack principle: The observation that high-probability behavior ___________ low-probability behavior

reinforces

___________: The observation that high-probability behavior reinforces low-probability behavior

Premack principle

___________: The procedure of identifying the component elements of a behavior chain

Task analysis

___________: The procedure of providing consequences for a behavior that increase or maintain the strength of that behavior

Reinforcement

Reinforcement: The procedure of providing ___________ for a behavior that increase or maintain the strength of that behavior

consequences

___________: The reappearance during extinction of a previously reinforced behavior

Resurgence

Resurgence: The ___________ during extinction of a previously reinforced behavior

reappearance

___________ schedule: A complex reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is contingent on the behavior of two or more organisms

Cooperative

___________schedule: A complex reinforcement schedule in which two or more simple schedules alternate, with each schedule associated with a particular stimulus

Multiple

___________ schedule: A complex reinforcement schedule in which two or more simple schedules are available at the same time

Concurrent

___________ schedule: A complex reinforcement schedule in which two or more simple schedules, neither associated with a particular stimulus, alternate

Mixed

___________ schedule: A complex reinforcement schedule that consists of a series of simple schedules, each of which is associated with a particular stimulus, with reinforcement delivered only on completion of the last schedule in the series

Chain

___________ schedule: A complex reinforcement schedule that consists of a series of simple schedules (without particular stimuli), with reinforcement delivered only on completion of the last schedule in the series

Tandem

___________: A form of differential reinforcement in which a behavior is reinforced only if it occurs at least a specified number of times in a given period

Differential reinforcement of high rate (DRH)

___________: A form of differential reinforcement in which a behavior is reinforced only if it occurs no more than a specified number of times in a given period

Differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL)

___________: A pause in responding following reinforcement; associated primarily with FI and FR schedules

Postreinforcement pause

___________: A reinforcement schedule in which a behavior is reinforced each time it occurs

Continuous reinforcement (CRF)

Continuous reinforcement: A reinforcement schedule in which a behavior is reinforced ____ it occurs

each time

___________ Schedule: A reinforcement schedule in which a behavior is reinforced the first time it occurs following a specified interval since the last reinforcement

Fixed interval (FI)

Fixed Interval Schedule: A reinforcement schedule in which a behavior is reinforced the first time it ___________ following a specified interval since the last reinforcement

occurs

___________ Schedule: A reinforcement schedule in which a behavior is reinforced the first time it occurs following an interval since the last reinforcement, with the interval varying around a specified average

Variable interval (VI)

Variable interval Schedule: A reinforcement schedule in which a behavior is reinforced the first time it occurs following an interval since the last reinforcement, with the interval ___________ around a specified average

varying

___________ Schedule: A reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is contingent on the continuous performance of a behavior for a fixed period of time

Fixed duration

___________ Schedule: A reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is contingent on the continuous performance of a behavior for a period of time, with the length of the time varying around an average

Variable duration (VD)

___________ Schedule: A reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is delivered at varying intervals regardless of what the organism does

Variable time (VT)

___________ Schedule: A reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is delivered independently of behavior at fixed intervals

Fixed time (FT)

___________ Schedule: A reinforcement schedule in which, on average, every nth performance of a behavior is reinforced

Variable ratio (VR)

___________: A rule describing the delivery of reinforcers for a behavior

Schedule of reinforcement

___________: Any operant training procedure in which certain kinds of behavior are systematically reinforced and others are not

Differential reinforcement

___________: Disruption of the pattern of responding due to stretching the ratio of reinforcement too abruptly or too far

Ratio strain

___________: The distinctive rate and pattern of responding associated with a particular reinforcement schedule

Schedule effects

Matching law: The principle that, given the opportunity to respond on two or more reinforcement schedules, the rate of responding on each schedule will ___________ the reinforcement available on each schedule

match

___________: The procedure of gradually increasing the number of responses required for reinforcement

Stretching the ratio

___________: The procedure of providing reinforcers independently of behavior

Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR)

The rate at which a behavior occurs once it has resumed following reinforcement

Run rate

___________: The tendency of a behavior to be more resistant to extinction following partial reinforcement than following continuous reinforcement

Partial reinforcement effect (PRE)

___________: A form of differential reinforcement in which a behavior that is incompatible with an unwanted behavior is systematically reinforced

Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI)

___________: A form of differential reinforcement in which reinforcement is contingent on the complete absence of a behavior for a period of time

Differential reinforcement of zero responding (DR0)

___________ punishment: A procedure that reduces behavior in which that behavior is followed by the presentation of, or an increase in the intensity of, a stimulus Also called type 1 punishment

Positive

Positive punishment: A procedure that reduces behavior in which a behavior is followed by the ___________ of, or an increase in the intensity of, a stimulus Also called type 1 punishment

presentation

___________ punishment: A procedure that reduces behavior in which a behavior is followed by the removal of, or a decrease in the intensity of, a stimulus

negative

___________: Any consequence of a behavior that decreases the strength of that behavior

Punisher

___________: The procedure of altering the environment to prevent unwanted behavior from occurring

Response prevention

Punishment: The procedure of providing consequences for a behavior that ____ the strength of that behavior

decreases

___________: The procedure of providing consequences for a behavior that reduce the strength of that behavior

Punishment

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