Chapter 2 Vocabulary

54 terms by morganrenaldo

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Neuron

A nerve cell; the basic budilgin block of the nervous sytem

Snesory Neurons

Neurons that carry incoming information from teh sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord

Motor Neurons

Neurons tha carry outgoing information fromt he brain and spinal cord to the muscles and galnds

Interneurons

Neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and inetervene between the sensory inpyuts and motor outputs

Dendrite

The busy, brabnching extensions of a neuron that recieve messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

Axon

The extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers thorugh which emssages pass to other neurons tr to muslces or glands

Myelin sheath

A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons enables vastly greater tranjsmission speed of neural impulses as the impuls hops from one node to the next

Action potential

A neural impuls; a bfried electrical charage that travels down an axon

Cell body

The cells life support center

Neural impulse

Electrical signal traveling down the axon

Terminal branches of the axon

Form junctions with other cells

Threshold

The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

Synapse

The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the recieving neuron. TH etiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft.

Neurotransmitters

Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between tneurons. When released by teh sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the reicieving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse

Reuptake

A neurotransmitters reabsorption by the sending neuron

Endorphins

Natural, opioatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

Nervous system

The body's speedy, electrochemical communication netwokr, consisting of all hte nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems

Central nervous system (CNS)

The brain and spinal cord

Peripheral nervous sytem (PNS)

The sensory and motoer neruons that connect the central

Nerves

Bundled axons that form nerual cables connectin gthe central nervous syutem with muslces, glands, and sense organs

Somatic nervous system

The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles

Autonomic nervous sytem

The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the gland and the muscles of the internal organs. Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms

Sympathetic nervous system

The division of the authonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

Parasympathetic nervous system

Th edivision of the authonomic nervous system tha calms the body, conserving its energy

Reflex

A simple, automatic response to sensory stimullus, such as the knee-jerk response

Endocrine

The body's slow chemical communcaition system, a set of glands that secret hormones into the bloodstream

Hormones

Chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travle through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues

Adrenal glands

A pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secret hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress

Pituitary gland

The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates the growth and controls other endocrine glands

Lesion

Tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturlal or experimentall caused destruction of brain tissue

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.

PET (position emission tomography) scan

A visual display of brain activity that detects wehre a radioactive form glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images of soft tissue. MRI scans show brain anatomy.

fMRI (functional MRI)

A technique for revealing blooflow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing uccessive MRI scans. fMRI scans show brain function

Brainstem

THe oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brain stem is responsible for authomatic survival functions

Medulla

The base of the brainstem; controls hearbeat and breathing

Reticular formation

A nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

Thalamus

The brain's sensory switchoard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory recieving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

Cerebellum

The "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory imput and coordinating movement output and balance

Limbic system

Neural system (including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives

Amygdala

Two lima bean sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion

Hypothalamus

A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintance activies (eating, drinking, body temperature) helps govern the endocrine system bia the pitutiaaary gland and is linked to emotion and reward.

Cerebral cortex

The intricate fabirc of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center

Glial cells (glia)

Cells in teh nervous system taht support, nourish, and protect neurons

Frontal lobes

Portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements

Parietal lobes

Portion of teh cerebral cortex lying at teh top of the head and toward the rear; recieves sensory imput for touch and body position

Occipital lobes

Portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that recieve information from the visual fields

Temporal lobes

Portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear

Motor Cortex

An area at teh rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

Sensory Cortex

Area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch anbd movement sensation

Association areas

Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking

Plasticity

The brain's abililty to change. especially durring the childhood by reorganizing after damange by building new pathways based on experience

Corpus callosum

The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

Split Brain

A condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them

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