What made British government officials subject to law?
rule of law
What document, signed by King John in 1215, made kings and queens subject to law?
What document declared Parliament's supremacy over monarchs?
English Bill of Rights
What philosophical movement emphasized reason over old traditions?
What did John Locke believe?
a social contract existed between rulers and the ruled
Who thought the way to liberty was separation of governmental powers?
Baron de Montesquieu
What were 4 of America's unique models of self-government?
town meetings, Virginia House of Burgesses, Mayflower Compact, Declaration of Independence
What is the word for a set of basic principles and laws stating a government's powers and duties?
Where was America's first state constitution written?
What were limited governments?
governments where leaders had to obey laws
Which state has the oldest state constitution still in effect?
What was the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom?
document declaring no person could be forced to attend a particular church or pay for a church with tax money
How did state constitutions expand suffrage?
white, tax-paying (not just land-owning) men could vote
Who could hold public office?
white, tax-paying, land-owning men
What was the Committee of Thirteen?
group with one representative per state that drafted the Articles of Confederation
Who appointed the Committee of Thirteen?
Second Continental Congress
Under the Articles of Confederation, what became the single branch of government?
How many votes in Congress per state?
What 6 main things could congress do?
settle conflicts, issue coins, borrow money, make treaties with other countries, make treaties with Natives, ask states for money or soldiers
Could states refuse Congress' requests?
What two things, under Articles of Confederation, didn't U.S. have?
president, national court system
What's the word for official approval?
What was the last state to ratify the Articles? Why?
Maryland; wanted all states to give up western land claims
What document set up the system for surveying and dividing western lands?
Land Ordinance of 1785
36 square miles divided into 36 lots; each lot had 640 acres; 1 lot for schools, 4 for veterans, rest sold to the public
What did the Northwest Ordinance of 1785 do?
established Northwest Territory and created a system for admitting new states to the Union
How did a territory become a state?
it was given a Congress-appointed governor; when population reached 60,000, it could ask to join
What civil liberties did the Northwest Ordinance of 1785 protect?
public education was required; slavery banned in Northwest and future territories
Why was the national government threatened by foreign countries?
Did Britain turn over its forts quickly?
no; Treaty of Paris difficult to enforce, and Britain threatened to attack with 1,000s of its soldiers waiting in Canada if U.S. tried to seize forts by force
What were economic problems caused by Britain?
many British ports closed to U.S. ships; Americans were forced to pay high tariffs on rice, tobacco, tar, and oil; a depression began
What were problems with Spain?
Spain closed the lower Mississippi River to U.S. and negotiations failed
Who wrote, "Our federal government is but a name; a mere shadow without substance"?
Rhode Island representatives
Why did farmers suffer at the hands of the British?
farmers couldn't export to West Indies; had to hire expensive British ships to carry their goods to British ports
________ decreased while ___________ flowed freely into U.S.
Why were American businesses hurt?
British merchants sold products to Americans at lower prices
What were the main problems with states?
states worked for themselves rather than the country; trade between them wasn't regulated; trade laws differed from state to state
What was the term for trade between states?
What did a British magazine call the U.S.?
states were in debt, so they printed paper money; inflation occurred and money's value dropped; inflation couldn't be regulated
What were reactions of Rhode Islands debtors to inflation?
happy they could pay back their debts
What were reactions of Rhode Island creditors?
upset they were being paid back with useless money; hundreds fled to avoid it
What is the term for a period of low economic activity combined with a rise in unemployment?
Instead of printing worthless paper money, how did Massachusetts pay its war debts?
heavily taxed land
How were Massachusetts farmers hurt in repaying war debts?
couldn't always pay new taxes; courts forced them to sell land; some served in debtor's prison, others in sold labor
What poor farmer and veteran led angry farmers in a revolt against the courts taking away their property (_____'s Rebellion)?
What were Shay's rebels' fates?
14 sentenced to death, most (including Shays) freed after being defeated by state troops
What did Shays Rebellion show?
how weak the central government was
What was the Annapolis Convention?
a meeting in Annapolis, Maryland with nine states' delegates who were to discuss economic problems and ways to improve the Articles of Confederation; poor attendance
Because few made it to the Annapolis Convention, participants like James Madison and Alexander Hamilton called on all 13 states to send delegates to a _________ in ___________ to revise the Articles of Confederation.
Constitutional Convention; Philadelphia
Where was the Constitutional Convention held?
Philadelphia's Independence Hall
What was the purpose of the Constitutional Convention? What was the result?
to revise the Articles of Confederation; they ended up leaving with a whole new Constitution
Who was the president of the Constitutional Convention?
Who were three famous men who attended the Constitutional Convention?
Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton
Who were 6 people and people groups who did not attend the Constitutional Convention?
John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, women, African Americans, and Native Americans
What were the six major issues debated at the Constitutional Convention?
how much to change the Articles, representation, economic concerns, tariffs, slavery, how strong the central government should be
Who proposed the Virginia Plan?
What did the Virginia Plan propose?
supreme power to the central government; bicameral legislature represented by population
Who proposed the New Jersey Plan?
What did the New Jersey Plan propose?
federal government power to tax citizens and regulate commerce; unicameral legislature with each state represented equally
Who proposed the Great Compromise?
Roger Sherman of Connecticut
What did the Great Compromise propose?
legislative branch would have two houses; Senate with two representatives per state, House of Representatives with representatives proportionate to population
Who was a great speaker who had a dream of a strong central government?
Which, north or south, wanted slaves to be counted as part of their population? Why?
south; wanted more Congress representation
Which, north or south, didn't want slaves to be counted as part of their population? Why?
north; they didn't want more taxes
What said only three-fifths of a state's slave population would count for representation?
What allowed Congress to levy tariffs on imports but not exports and allowed the importation of slaves until 1807
What term did the Constitution specifically not say? What did it say instead?
slaves; "free persons" and "all other persons"
What was the idea that political authority belonged to the people? Where was the term first used?
popular sovereignty; Declaration of Independence
What is the sharing of power between a central government and the states that make up a country?
What made states obey the national government and gave them control over functions not specifically assigned to the national government?
What were 5 government functions not specifically assigned to the national government under the Constitution?
local government, education, corporation chartering, supervision of religious bodies, create and oversee civil and criminal law
What branch is responsible for proposing and passing laws (Congress)?
What are the two houses of the legislative branch? How are the states represented in each?
Senate, two representatives per state; House of Representatives, representation according to population
What branch is responsible for enforcing the law (president, police officers)?
What branch interprets laws, punishes criminals, and settles disputes between states (national courts)?
What is the system that keeps any branch of government from becoming too powerful?
checks and balances
What are 4 ways that checks and balances work?
Congress can pass bills into law, president can veto those laws, but Congress can override the veto with a two-thirds majority vote, Supreme Court can veto any law declared unconstitutional
How many delegates were there at the Constitutional Convention? How many refused to sign?
What's ideas did delegates believe the Constitution protected?
Who thought the Constitutional Convention should not have made a new government?
What were the two main problems Antifederalists had with the Constitution?
too much power to central government; no section for individual rights
What were the majority of Antifederalists? Who was some famous Antifederalists?
small farmers and debtors; George Mason, Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry
Who were the majority of Federalists? Who were some famous Federalists?
wealthy planters, farmers, lawyers, workers, craftspeople; James Madison, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Paul Revere
What was the term for people who supported the Constitution?
Who was an ardent Patriot who wrote "Observations on the New Constitution," a pamphlet criticizing the Constitution's lack of individual rights provided?
Mercy Otis Warren
What were essays supporting the Constitution called? What was the anonymous name they were published under? Who actually wrote them?
Federalist Papers; Publius; Hamilton, Madison, Jay
What said the new government wouldn't overpower states and that the diversity of the U.S. would prevent any single group from dominating the government?
How many states needed to pass the Constitution? How many to establish national unity?
Which state didn't hold special conventions to discuss and vote on the Constitution?
Who said, "The proposed...government, is well calculated to secure the liberties, protect the property, and guard the rights of the citizens of America."?
Who said, "It appears that the government will fall into the hands of the few and the great."?
New York citizen
What was the first state to ratify the Constitution? The ninth?
Delaware; New Hampshire
Which two states strongly debated the Constitution? Which was the first to ratify it?
Virginia, New York; Virginia
Where was the New York state convention to discuss the Constitution held? Which Federalist spoke there?
Poughkeepsie; Alexander Hamilton
Who led the Antifederalists?
What was the last state to ratify the Constitution?
Who wanted to make a bill of rights the new government's first priority?
What is the term for official changes to the Constitution?
What did the first amendments deal with?
bill of rights
What did Article V of the Constitution do?
provided a way to change the Constitution when necessary to reflect the people's will
How could the Constitution be changed?
approved by two-thirds majority of both Congress houses and ratified by three-fourths of the states
Where did legislators take ideas for the Bill of Rights?
state ratifying conventions, Virginia Declaration of Rights, English Bill of Rights, Declaration of Independence
How many amendments were proposed for the Bill of Rights? How many made it into the Bill?
What was the document that had 10 of the proposed amendments intended to protect citizens' rights?
Bill of Rights
Why is the Constitution a living document?
it can change; has survived for 200 years