microbiology Chapter 1

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Menacing Microbes

Serve as infectious agents
Human diseases
Animal diseases
Plant diseases

no***

•Do you think you are infected if these microbiota are found on your tongue?

disease results***

•When a pathogen overcomes the host's resistance,

How are microbes used as resources?***

•Solve environmental problems
-Degrade biodegradable materials
-Recycle nutrients in ecosystems on earth
•Solve agricultural problems
-Nitrogen fixation
-Food production
•Solve medical problems
-Drug, enzyme, vaccine

both beneficial and harmful***

•Microbes are
A.harmful
B.beneficial
C.more harmful than beneficial
D.more beneficial than harmful
E.both beneficial and harmful

Microorganisms

•Living organisms too small to be seen with naked eye

Microorganisms include:

•viruses
•bacteria
•fungi
•protozoa
•algae
•helminths

Scopes of microbiology***

•Immunology
•Public health
•Epidemiology
•Food microbiology
•Agricultural microbiology
•Biotechnology
•Industrial microbiology
•Genetic engineering

immunology

antigen and antibody reaction

antigen

the microorganism in immunizations

antibody

stuff produced from self/ body inside

epidemiology

how the disease spreads

biotechnology

uses enzymes use microorganisms as a vector=cell

no,*** antibacterial products produce a mutant bug. Regular use of antibacterial cleaning products produces/promotes antibiotic resistant mutant

Advertisements tell you that bacteria and viruses are all over your home and that you need to buy antibacterial cleaning products. Should you?

antibacterial products produce a mutant bug.*** Regular use of antibacterial cleaning products produces/promotes antibiotic resistant mutant

What is consequence for regular use of antibacterial cleaning products?

Not true***

Is the comment you see in the commercial true or not?
-Only a dead germ is a good germ!

ubigious**

Where are microorganisms found?

no sterilized = germ free**

•Can you find microorganisms in
-the sterilized environment?

not suppose to have germs

Can you find microorganisms in
-closed circulatory system?

prokaryotic***

no nucleus (All bacteria has no membrane bound oraganelles

eukaryotic**

has nulceus

Simplicity
Rapid reproduction
Adaptability

What attributes of bacteria are important for research?

true**

TRUE/False
Viruses are not living organisms

true**

viruses are living entities
TRUE/ FALSE

virus, viroid,prion

viruses that are living entities include

viruses

infect humans draws greater attention

viroid

peice of tiny, infects plants, citrus disease, cownut dunk (disease would make cocunuts fall at night)

prion

a mutated pr protein. Can go anywhere. Ex mad cow disease

free-living/harmless

Most microorganisms are ____________/__________

non-disease causing agent**

Free living species refers to

•Anton van Leeuwenhoek***

-Dutch linen merchant
-First one invented microscope
-First one to see bacterial cells
-Farther of bacteriology and protozoology

Francesco Redi

-One of the first people to doubt the spontaneous generation theory
-His and related experiments partially disproved the idea of spontaneous generation
-His experiments did not convince many scientists that simpler organisms such as microorganisms could arise this way

Louis Pasteur***

-Invented pasteurization
-Finally disproved abiogenesis
-Completed some of the first studies in Germ Theory of Disease

Robert Koch***

Perfected germ theory of disease
-Established postulates
- postulates are the cornerstone of the germ theory of disease

Germ theory of disease

Theory that germs cause the disease

abiogenesis theory/
spontaneous generation

early stage theory that all things come from non living organism {(trash created rats/worms. or meat produced worms)later disproved}

Koch's Postulates

1.Isolate the organism from every case
2.Propagate in pure culture in vitro
3.Reproduce disease by injecting the organism into a suitable recipient
4.Re-isolate the organism

Kochs postulate

symptom>isolation>culture>re-inoculate>symptom(see if this culture produces symptom again

Corolus Linnaeus***

Originated the idea of classifying organisms according to a hierarchy of increasingly restrictive levels or taxa
-Standardized binomial system of nomenclature

Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom***

spaghetti
green
for
over
came
Philip
King

Biogenesis theory**

living organisms come from living organisms

Abiogenesis theory/spontaneous generation theory

theory of living organisms coming from non living organisms (meat produces maggots, leter disproved)

spontaneous generation**

early belief that living things arose from vital forces presentin nonliving and decomposing matter.

hypothesis**

a possible explanation/educated guess

making observations*******

Steps of proving a hypothesis in inductive approach begin with
A. formulating a hypothesis.
B. testing hypothesis.
C. making observations.
D. consulting prior knowledge.

formulating a hypothesis***

Steps proving hypothesis in deductive approach
A. formulating a hypothesis.
B. testing hypothesis.
C. making observations.
D. consulting prior knowledge.

Steps to proving a hypothesis****

1. making observation (inductive approach)
2. Formulating Hypothesis (deductive approach)
3.test hypothesis
4. collect data
5. Interpret data
6. Draw conclusion
7.Scientific theory

Taxonomy

The formal filing systemm scientists use to classify living things.

C establishin kingdom is not included***

Taxonomic system has three primary functions excpet
AClassification B Nomenclature C. establishing kingdom D identifying species

classification, nomenclature, identification of species

What are the three primary functions of the taxonomic system?

classification

orderly arrangement of organisms into groups

nomenclature

assigning names

identification

discovering and recording traits of organisms for placement into taxonomic schemes

Genus - noun, always capitalized**
**-species - adjective, lowercase
•Both italicized or underlinedStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)
-Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis)
-Escherichia coli (E. coli)
-Homo sapiens (H. sapiens)

.Binomial (scientific) nomenclature
•Gives each microbe 2 names:

monera** =eubacteria and archaea

Prokaryotes no nucleus ( class system)

Protista

Simple or primarily unicellular eukaryotes

Fungi

eukaryotic decomposer, having cell wall, not photosynthetic

Animalia

multicellular eukaryotes, muscular and nervous system

Plantae

Multicellular eukaryotes, photosynthesis

Thhe 5 kingdom system forms monera which combines the eubacteria and archaea***

What is the difference between the five kingdom system and the six kingdom system?

the 5 kingdom combines Eubacteria and archaea to = monera

What is the difference between the five kingdom classification and six kingdom?

archaea

ancient bacteria lack peptidoglycan live in extreme enviroments (1 kingdom)

eubacteria

true bacteria

eukarya

have a nucleus and organelles (4 kingdoms=protista, fungi, animalia, plantae)

all in all ways of classifying

•3 domains
•5 or 6 kingdoms
•2 cell types

Evolution - living things change gradually over millions of years

•Changes favoring survival are retained and less beneficial changes are lost.
•All new species originate from preexisting species.
•Closely related organism have similar features because they evolved from common ancestral forms.
•Evolution usually progresses toward greater

Craig Venter***

He created the first artificially designed organism by inserting a complete synthetic genome of bacterium Mycloplasma mycoides into Mycoplasma capricolum a goat bacterial pathogen that causes mastitis.

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