Sociology; Chapter 3

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Key Terms and Self-Quiz Questions from the Summary at the end of Chapter 3, Sociology (13th Ed.) by Richard T. Shaefer. This set is best studied utilizing the random, or "shuffle" option.

Argot

specialized language used by members of a group or subculture.

Bilingualism

The use of two or more languages in a particular setting, such as the workplace or schoolroom, treating each language as equally legitimate.

Counterculture

A subculture that deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture.

Cultural Genocide

the systematic destruction of a group's culture.

Cultural Relativism

The viewing of people's behavior from the perspective of their own culture. ( Essentially the OPPOSITE of ETHNOCENTRICISM.)

Cultural Universal

a common practice or belief found in every culture.

Culture

The totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior.

Culture Industry

The worldwide media industry that standardizes the goods and services demanded by consumers.

Culture Lag

a period of maladjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions.

Culture Shock

the feeling of surprise and disorientation that people experience when they encounter cultural practices that are different from their own.

Culture War

The polarization of society over controversial cultural elements.

Diffusion

The process by which a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society.

Discovery

The process of making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality.

Dominant Ideology

a set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests.

Ethnocentrism

The tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others.

Folkway

A norm governing everyday behavior whose violation raises comparatively little concern.

Formal Norm

A norm that has been written down and that specifies strict punishments for violators.

Genocide

the deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation.

Informal Norm

a norm that is generally understood but not precisely recorded.

Innovation

The process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture through Discovery or Invention.

Invention

The combination of existing cultural items into a new form that did not exist before.

Language

An abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture; includes gestures and other nonverbal communication.

Law

Government social control.

Material Culture

The physical or technological aspects of our daily lives.

Mores

Norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society.

Nonmaterial Culture

Ways of using material objects, as well as customs, ideas, expressions, beliefs, knowledge, philosophies, governments, and patterns of communication.

Norm

an established standard of behavior maintained by a society.

Sanction

A penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm.

Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

A hypothesis concerning the role of language in shaping our interpretation of reality. It holds that language is culturally determined.

Society

A fairly large number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside it, and participate in a common culture.

Sociobiology

the systematic study of how biology affects human social behavior.

Subculture

A segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the pattern of the larger society.

Symbol

A gesture, object, or word, that forms the basis of human communication.

FROM THE LECTURE: Symbols are always Multi-Vocal; that is to say, different meanings for different people.

Technology

Cultural information about the ways in which the material resources of the environment may be used to satisfy human needs and desires.

Value

A collective conception of what is considered good, desirable, and proper - or bad, undesirable, and improper - in a culture.

List a few aspects of culture.

- A Comic Book

- The patriotic attachment to the flag of the USA

- Slang Words

- Etc.

People's adaptation to meet the needs for food, shelter, and clothing are examples of what George Murdock referred to as:

Cultural Universals. Three Major Cultural Universals are:

- Some Form of Marriage

- Some Form of Incest Prohibition

- Some Form of Belief System

What term do Sociologists use to refer to the process by which a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society?

Diffusion

The apprearance of a Starbucks coffehouse in China is an example of what aspect of culture?

Globalization ( Chapter One )

What is the message behind the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?

Language Precedes Thought

What are some important characteristics of Norms?

- People do not follow norms in all situations. In some cases, they evade a norm because they know it is weakly enforced.

- In some instances, behavior that appears to violate society's norms may actually represent adherence to the norms of a particular group.

- Norms are violated in some instances because one norm conflicts with another.

TRUE OR FALSE

The Values of a culture may change, but most remain relatively stable during any one person's lifetime.

TRUE

TRUE OR FALSE

The Values of a culture never change.

FALSE. The Values of a culture may change, but most remain relatively stable during any one person's lifetime.

TRUE OR FALSE

The Values of a culture are constantly changing; Sociologists view them as being very unstable.

FALSE. Although the Values of a culture may change, most remain relatively stable during any one person's lifetime, or longer.

What term best describes the set of cultural beliefs and practices that help to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests?

Dominant Ideology

Terrorist groups are examples of:

Countercultures.

(admittedly, very EXTREME examples of countercultures...)

______ are gestures, objects, and/or words that form the basis of human communication.

Symbols

______ is the process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture.

Innovation

The bow and arrow, the automobile, and the television, are all examples of _______.

Inventions

Sociologists associated with the ______ perspective emphasize that language and symbols offer a powerful way for a subculture to maintain it's identity.

Interactionist

"Put on some clean clothes for dinner," and "Thou Shalt Not Kill" are both examples of _______ found in US culture.

Norms

The US has strong _____ against murder, treason, and other forms of abuse that have been institutionalized into formal norms.

Mores

From a _____ perspective, the dominant ideology has major social significance. Not only does a society's most powerful groups and institutions control wealth and property; more importantly, they control the means of production.

Conflict

Counterculture (e.g., hippies) are typically among the ______, who have the least investment in the existing culture.

Young

A person experiences _______ when he/she feels disoriented, uncertain, out of place, or even fearful, when immersed in an unfamiliar culture.

Culture Shock

From the ______ perspective, ethnocentrism serves to maintain a sense of solidarity by promoting group pride.

Functionalist

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