Sociology; Chapter 4

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Key Terms and Self-Quiz Questions from the Summary at the end of Chapter 4, Sociology (13th Ed.) by Richard T. Shaefer. This set is best studied utilizing the random, or "shuffle" option.

Anticipatory Socialization

processes of socialization in which a person "rehearses" for future positions, occupations, and social relationships.

Cognitive Theory of Development

the theory that children's thought progresses through four stages of development.

1.) Sensorimotor Stage

2.) Preoperational Stage

3.) Concrete Operational Stage

4.) Formal Operational Stage

Degradation Ceremony

an aspect of the socialization process within some total institutions, in which people are subjected to humiliating rituals.

Dramaturgical Approach

a view of social interaction in which people are seen as theatrical performers.

Face-Work

the efforts people make to maintain a proper image and avoid public embarrassment.

Gender Role

expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females.

Generalized Other

the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account in his or her behavior.

Impression Management

the altering of the presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences.

Life Course Approach

a research orientation in which sociologists and other social scientists look closely at the social factors that influence people throughout their lives, from birth to death.

Looking-Glass Self

a concept that emphasizes the self as the product of our social interactions.

Personality

A person's typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior.

Resocialization

the process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one's life.

Rite of Passage

a ritual marking the symbolic transition from one social position to another.

Role Taking

the process of mentally assuming the perspective of another and responding from that imagined viewpoint.

Self

A distinct identity that sets us apart from others.

Significant Other

an individual who is most important in the development of the self, such as a parent, friend, or teacher.

Socialization

the lifelong process through which people learn the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture.

Total Institution

an institution that regulates all aspects of a person's life under a single authority, such as a prison, the military, a mental hospital, or a convent.

Which social scientist used the phrase "Looking-Glass Self" to emphasize that the self is the product of our social interactions with other people?

Charles Horton Cooley

In what he called the "Play Stage" of socialization, George Herbert Mead asserted that people mentally assume the perspectives of others, thereby enabling them to respond from that imagined viewpoint. This process is referred to as _______.

Role Taking

George Herbert Mead is best known for his theory of what?

The Self.

Suppose a clerk tries to appear busier than he or she actually is when a supervisor happens to be watching. Erving Goffman would study this behavior from what approach?

Interactionist

According to child psychologist Jean Piaget's Cognitive Theory of Development, children begin to use words and symbols to distinguish objects and ideas during which stage in the development of the thought process?

The Pre-Operational Stage

On the first day of Basic Training in the US Army, a recruit has his civilian clothes replaced by Army Greens, has his hair shaved off, loses his privacy, and finds that he must use a communal bathroom. All these humiliating activities are part of _____.

A Degradation Ceremony

Which social institution is considered to be the most important agent of socialization in the US, especially for children?

The Family

The term "Gender Role" refers to

Expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females.

Which sociological perspective emphasizes that schools in the US foster competition through built-in systems of reward and punishment?

The Conflict Perspective

________ is the term used by Sociologists in referring to the lifelong process whereby people learn the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture.

Socialization

In everyday speech, the term _____ is used to refer to a person's typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior.

Personality

Studies of twins raised apart suggest that ______ and ________ influence human development.

Heredity, Environment

A _____ ______ is an individual such a parent, friend, or teacher, who is most important in the development of the self.

Significant Other

Early work in _______, such as that by Sigmund Freud, stressed the role of inborn drives - among them sexual gratification - in channeling human behavior.

Psychology

The Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget developed the _____ theory of development.

Cognitive

Preparation for many aspects of adult life begins with ______ socialization during childhood and adolescence, and continues throughout our lives as we prepare for new responsibilities.

Anticipatory

Resocialization is particularly effective when it occurs within a _______ institution.

Total

The ______ perspective emphasizes the role of schools in teaching the values and customs of the larger society.

Functionalist

As children grow older, the family becomes less important in social development, while ______ groups become more important.

Peer

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